Sunday, December 25, 2011

Build a Solar Panel Voltage Regulator, Charger Circuit at Home

We all know pretty well about solar panels and their functions. The basic functions of these amazing devices is to convert solar energy or sun light into electricity.

Basically a solar panel is made up discrete sections of individual photo voltaic cells. Each of these cells are able to generate a tiny magnitude of electrical power, normally around 1.5 to 3 volts.  

Many of these cells over the panel are wired in series so that the total effective voltage generated by the entire unit mounts up to an usable 12 volts or 24 volts outputs.

The current generated by the unit is directly proportional to the level of the sun light incident over the surface of the panel.

The power generated from a solar panel is normally used for charging a lead acid battery. The lead acid battery when fully charged is used with an inverter for acquiring the required AC mains voltage for powering the house electrical.

Ideally the sun rays should be incident over the surface of the panel for it to function optimally. However since the sun is never still, the panel needs to track or follow the suns path constantly so that it generates electricity at an efficient rate.

 If you are interested to build an automatic dual tracker solar panel system you may refer one of my earlier articles. Without a solar tracker, the solar panel will be able to do the conversions only at around 30 % efficiency.

Coming back to our actual discussions about solar panels, this device may be considered the heart of the system as far converting solar energy into electricity is concerned, however the electricity generated requires a lot of dimensioning to be done before it can be used effectively in the preceding grid tie system.

The voltage acquired from a solar panel is never stable and varies drastically according to the position of the sun and intensity of the sun rays and of course on the degree of incidence over the solar panel.

This voltage if fed to the battery for charging can cause harm and unnecessary heating of the battery and the associated electronics; therefore can be dangerous to the whole system.

In order to regulate the voltage from the solar panel normally a voltage regulator circuit is used in between the solar panel output and the battery input. This circuit makes sure that the voltage from the solar panel never exceeds the safe value required by the battery for charging.

Normally to get optimum results from the solar panel, the minimum voltage output from the panel should be higher than the required battery charging voltage, meaning even during adverse conditions when the sun rays are not sharp or optimum, the solar panel still should be able to generate a voltage more than say 12 volts which may be the battery voltage under charge.

Solar Voltage regulators available in the market can be too costly and not so reliable; however making one such regulator at home using ordinary electronic components can be not only fun but also very economical.

Referring to the proposed solar panel voltage regulator, charger circuit we see a design that utilizes very ordinary components and yet fulfills the needs just as required by our specs.

 A single IC LM 338 becomes the heart of the entire configuration and becomes responsibly for implementing the desired voltage regulations single handedly.

The shown solar panel regulator, charger circuit is framed as per the standard mode of the IC 338 configuration.

The input is given to the shown input points of the IC and the output for the battery received at the output of the IC. The pot or the preset is used to accurately set the voltage level that may be considered as the safe value for the battery.

The circuit also offers a current control feature, which makes sure that the battery always receives a fixed predetermined charging current rate and is never over driven.

The module can be wired as directed in the diagram. The relevant positions indicated can be simply wired even by a layman. Rest of the function is taken care of by the regulator circuit.

The switch S1 should be toggled to inverter mode once the battery gets fully charged (as indicated over the meter).

The charging current may be selected by appropriately selecting the value of the resistors R3. It can be done by solving the formula:

0.6/R3 = 1/10 battery AH

The preset VR1 is adjusted for getting the required charging voltage from the regulator.

205 comments:

  1. Sir,in the solar voltage regulator,what is the value of R4 and the part number of the transistor.

    ReplyDelete
  2. The transistor is BC547, and the value of R4 is = twice R3.
    The value of R3 will depend on the charging current which should be ideally 1/10th of the connected battery AH.
    The formula for calculating R3 is given at the end of the article.
    The diode is 1N5402.

    Regards.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. What is the function of transistor BC547? And don't the LM338 needs a negative pulse protective diode? Does this circuit gives a fixed output voltage even if the solar panel's voltage fluctuate?

      Delete
    2. BC547 is used as the current limiter.

      Yes you may add the required protection diodes for better safety to LM338.

      Absolutely, the circuit will provide a fixed set voltage at the output, irrespective of the input voltage fluctuations.

      Delete
    3. dear Swagatam
      i don't know much about electronic
      does this circuit have a function to automatic turn off when battery is full?

      Delete
  3. Thanks and great circuit. Just wondering, does the solar panel specs and battery specs such as voltage matter? I know the battery AH matters for R3 and R4, but is it okay to use a 12V solar panel and a 12V battery for this configuration?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Kevin
      Thanks!

      Preferably the optimal voltage from the solar panel should be twice that of the battery voltage for the above circuit, in this way a voltage level that's always above the required minimum input value becomes available, irrespective of the suns position.

      Delete
  4. Hi Swagatam!
    Great circuit! I was wondering what the P1 is in the circuit, I am assuming it is a potentiometer, but what I don't understand is the input coming into the left of P1?

    ReplyDelete
  5. Hi,

    Yes, it can be a pot or preset, the slider arm of the pot is connected to the left of the circuit, i.e. to the ADJ of the IC

    ReplyDelete
  6. Ok, but you don't really explain how the switch works. How does it know when the certain voltage is reached and what exactly are you using for this switch? This is the biggest problem I am having, is getting the overcharge protection to work.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. In case of an over current, R3 develops enough voltage across it to just switch ON the transistor, which stops the IC from conducting and freezes the output, preventing the battery from the dangerous situation.

      Delete
  7. hello. Sorry I have a solar panels output voltage around 20 volts, Question is this circuits works perfectly? Please give any recommendation or what would I do..

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. If the open circuit voltage of your solar panel never exceeds 35V then this circuit will work outstandingly well.

      I have a great respect for the IC LM338, its awesome.

      Delete
  8. sir,can we make a voltage regulator cum inverter using a solar panel?pls give me rply soon

    ReplyDelete
  9. sir,can you provide me the circuit diagram for it?i want to do it as the final year project...sir,can you please suggest me a good one?my colleague is interested in doing electronic dipper.I asked my guide about doing a graphical equalizer.but he is not interested in it.He is interested in circuits like solar inverter and all.sir,please suggest me a good one with its details....waiting for your valuable advice...

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Surya,

      I'll try to design and post a suitable circuit soon, however it won't be an easy project, and therefore it will require a sound prior knowledge of electronics and soldering, or else you might waste a lot of money without succeeding.

      Regards.

      Delete
  10. sir,we are new to the field of electronics application,can you please suggest me an idea and its details for me?sir,will you please guide me..?we have to submit it by Aug 29th

    ReplyDelete
  11. sir,will this be a fine project for me?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. This project is very good but I am not sure whether you will be able to complete it successfully because this project is not for the beginners.

      If you have somebody who has a strong command over electronics and who can assist you with the proceedings then you can be hopeful.

      However I will post the circuit within a couple of days and let you know.

      Regards.

      Delete
  12. Hello Swagatam,

    Thanks for the circuit. I am looking for suitable solar charge controller to handle currents upto 30A in buck (40 to 24 V) configuration. This will prevent the loss in the form of heat by increasing the amps.

    Thanks
    Vishal

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi, Vishal,

      The above circuit is probably one of the best circuits for charging a battery through any DC source, for getting 30amps you can add a pull-up power transistor across the IC...this will increase the current handling capacity of the circuit many folds.

      I'll try to post a related circuit article very soon.

      Thanks and Regards.

      Delete
  13. One the coming applications of solar is for small water pumps... like feeding a drinking trough for cattle or watering a garden. These simple solar applications require, in addition to a charge regulator, an inhibit switch to shut off the water pump when battery voltage goes low. Can anybody come up with a simple way to add a cut-off switch to this regulator circuit? I believe this small addition would increase the popularity of this circuit and offer many people an expensive way to operate small water pumps. Thanks for any comments.

    sundownr
    Roswell, New Mexico

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks Sundownr!

      I'll surely think about it.

      Delete
  14. Swagatam

    I have been thinking about the ultimate solar regulator for RVs and solar water pumps. I am now working on a PC board design (ExpressPCB) which will allow for a number of options. 1) your regulator as shown 2)provisions for an AtTiny microprocessor which can provide timers, analog input and digital output 3) several LM117 switches 3) heat sensor and 4) photoresistor. Given this pc board can provide these functions it should offer a lot of versatility. Last I will note the LM338 comes in a T0-3 case which allows for external mounting on a metal box (heat sink).

    The real trick, of course, is to design an intelligent pc board layout which can provide any or all of the above functions and offer self protection by shutting down under extreme heat or heavy current loads.

    I might also suggest, by incorporating PMW outputs, this pc board could also provide solar tracking ability by using the photoresistor and microprocessor logic.

    I understand this is overkill for most solar applications today, but as solar applications increase in sophistication, all these functions will become necessary.

    FYI... I do have several web sites which discuss solar installation and solar tracking technology.

    sundownr
    Roswell, New Mexico

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. That's indeed very interesting. Thanks sundownr!

      I'll look into the the feasibility of the above mentioned features and hopefully come up with a more versatile and improved solar controller circuit.

      Regards.

      Delete
  15. Take a look on Digikey at a STP-75NF75. The specs on this MOSFET are terrific for $2.39 a copy. Nothing else in this price range comes even close for temperature and amperage. With a 555 and a little PWM circuity you can charge anything and/or drive anything (water pump) without worrying about heat dissipation.

    Take a look at this circuit ===> http://chemelec.com/Projects/PWM/PWM-1.jpg

    The guy that runs this site can design anything. His name is Gary and he is tops in analog design.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hmm...yes the mosfet specs are very good, specifically suitable for controlling heavy motors.

      The circuit link shows a PWM motor speed controller,I think I have a similar circuit posted in this blog too.

      However this circuit is more elaborate and powerful, I am sure, folks will love making it.

      Appreciate all the info you have provided, thanks very much.

      Delete
    2. Hi Swagatam,
      Nice to see u r valuable suggestions, its a great work.

      using solar panel, without any battery, i need a variable voltage and current supply to run my project ,it doesn't matter how many hours it may work, till sun is their. the specs required for me is variable voltage 0-4 v and current 0-10A, just what we see in regulated power supply using AC power.

      Will it be possible, if so solar panel required with what voltage and current, can u help me out with u r suggestions and any circuit with u...u can post to my mail id may9th@gmail.com

      Delete
    3. Hi Appu Pappu,

      You may refer the datasheet of the IC LM338, you will find many cool power supply circuits there, exactly suiting your application needs.

      Delete
    4. Yes, I was thinking that a series MOSFET switch would be a better deal. The 3-terminal regulator just needs too much headroom. It forces you to use a higher voltage solar panel, and then throws away some of the power.

      Delete
  16. This is nice.. Guys your conversation helps me a lot to gain more information about it...

    Hope to remember it for our final defends.. thanks


    >allendrei<

    ReplyDelete
  17. i think lm 338 will handel only up to 5 amp ,how to handel the 30 amp current to charge the battery ?will putting a series of lm 337 in parallel will work to handel 30 amp current?

    ReplyDelete
  18. Yes only upto 5 amps.

    A current pull-up transistor will need to be employed across the input and the output of the IC for increasing currents upto 30 amps.....

    ReplyDelete
  19. I plan to build a solar panel voltage regulator to replace a damaged unit used for a navigational light. The supply to the light is always on because its location. will there be a problem?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Do you mean the charger controller will remain switched ON permanently, day and night?

      Will do, that will do no harm to the above suggested controller design....

      Delete
  20. Hi,

    Is first resistor 120 ohm or 120k ohm..
    And if i use 12v 7ah battery what is the value of R3 and R4.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi,

      It's 120 Ohms and not 120K Ohm

      R3 = 0.6 Ohms, 1 watt

      R4 is not required, it may be shorted.

      Delete
  21. I know this post is relatively old but I have a question. For the S1 could you setup a relay to automatically switch from battery to inverter once the battery was charged. If so what all would be involved in such a mod.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. The relay in the second circuit shown in the following link can be replaced with S1 above.

      http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2011/12/how-to-make-simple-low-battery-voltage.html

      A resistor of around 470 K should be added across pin#2 and Pin#6 of the IC741 so that it can sense both the conditions of the battery, ie full charge and low charge.....

      Delete
  22. if 0,6/R3=1/10Ah-----------> R3=6/AH
    for 7Ah-------------------->R3= 6/7=0.86 ohm
    ok?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. divide the battery AH by 10, suppose the answer is X, then the formula becomes:

      R = 0.6/X

      Delete
  23. hi,

    can u explain why we need the diode here???
    why a silicon rectifier diode..in5402????

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. It's there for avoiding accidental reverse connections.

      Delete
    2. and why would such accidental reverse conditions occur anyways?????

      Delete
    3. due to human errors, while assembling the circuit....

      Delete
  24. hi,
    kindly explain in the connections of the POT.....the diagram shows the variable and fixed end goin indirectly to the adjust of IC only.....and thats confusing me.

    kindly explain that sir.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi,

      Short the pot's middle lead with one of the outer leads, connect it with the upper R2/ADJ point and connect the other lead to the lower point at R4...

      Delete
    2. sorry...it should be R1/ADJ and not R2/ADJ...

      Delete
  25. hey,

    how do you verify the working of the circuit???????
    like once the circuit is connected and supply is provided, how do you verify if its working correctly or not?????

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. you may check it through a ammeter connected in series with the output positive, as shown here:

      http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2012/04/how-to-make-solar-battery-charger.html

      Delete
  26. hi...

    how do you verify the working of this circuit post giving the connections and supply?????

    ReplyDelete
  27. hi...

    where is the battery negative connected to in the circuit??????

    ReplyDelete
  28. Found this on a google search. I recently aquired a 22 volt probably 20 watt panel. I bought a regulator for my first motorhome solar system and it failed shortly there after.
    I've checked amazon ... no luck. Where can I buy these items without having to buy 50 of each?
    Thanks from sunny San Diego, CA for posting the project.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. In India (Mumbai) anybody can get the parts from the main electronic market situated at Lamington Road(grant Road)....not sure where you would find them in your area.

      In India all the above material would cost just a couple of dollars.

      Delete
  29. Hi,
    I have a home inverter of 800VA with the battery rating of 12V, 100AH. please suggest wheather regulator circuit will work as it is or it requires any change and secondly please let me know the value of R3 & lastly wheather can i get the assembled circuit in bangalore

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi,

      The above circuit will not be enough for charging a 100AH batt, try the circuit given in the following link:

      http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2012/11/high-current-transistor-tip36-datasheet.html

      Delete
  30. sir , i have connected this circuit with 100 watts panel and it is giving 20 volts .but the regulator output is 9.6 volts only. i used all the components as u mentioned. please help me to solve the problem in this circuit

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. ok sir,thank u . today i will try and give u feedback.

      Delete
    2. thanks lot. it is working well.

      Delete
  31. Well I am a newbie at this.I have a 10w , vmp=17, imp=0.59, voc=21v solar panel. Will the circuit work for me??
    and should i use a 12v 2.5Ah or a 12v 7.5Ah battery?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. The circuit will work with all types of solar panel whose max output voltage is not beyond 30V.

      The battery ratings will depend upon your output load specs, this regulator will support upto 50 AH

      Delete
    2. what type of inverter circuit should i use for above specs?(10w , vmp=17, imp=0.59, voc=21v solar panel)
      PLEASE provide me a link for the same...

      Delete
    3. with a 10 watt solar panel you cannot operate any inverter, the power will be inadequate for even the smallest of inverters.

      Delete
  32. i have 5watts 18v open circuit solar panel.how many hours this solar panel can charge a 12v 4A battery. it is okay to use this circuit?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Lead acid batteries should never be charged at faster rates. Ideally it should be charged at around AH/10 to AH/5 current rate.

      Your solar panel is capable of doing this, however the charger controller shown in the above article should be incorporated and the current should be set as discussed above.

      Delete
    2. Thanks for the reply but i cannot understand ( AH/10 to AH/5 current rate)

      Delete
    3. AH will be printed on the battery, divide it with 10 or 5 to get the required charging current.

      Delete
    4. Thank you very much. I have 5 watts 18volts open circuit solar panel.
      and I have also 4A 12volts lead acid battery. What is the value ofR3?

      Delete
    5. use this formula:

      0.6/R3 = 1/10 x battery AH

      AH/10 = o.6/R3

      4/10 = 0.6/R3
      4R3 = 6

      R3 = 6/4 = 1.5 Ohms

      R4 = 3 ohms

      Delete
    6. Thanks for all of your answer

      Delete
  33. sir this is raju i have 12v 100AH battery with 125 watts solar panel. plz tell me the values of R3 and pot and any other changes in the circuit

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. The above circuit is not capable of charging batteries over 50 AH.

      Delete
  34. dear sir , i am bala , i am learning lot from your blog. i did the circuit , it is working well. please add battery over charging protection using IC 741. that will be very helpful.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. dear bala,

      you may refer to this circuit which shows an automatic over charger cut off stage with a LM338 circuit:

      http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-mJfdYOcXCzs/UJ3VJD8ygFI/AAAAAAAABQw/_kGCNyHxiW4/s1600/smart%20battery%20charger%20circuit.png

      Delete
  35. sir, i cannot understand double diode near battery positive and relay n.c area. please explain that will help me to understand

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. when the charger cuts off, these doides keep supplying the battery with a charging voltage that's much lower than 14.3V, because two diodes will drop around 0.6+0.6 = 1.2V....so 14.3 - 1.2 = 13.1V....the battery will stay at stand by position always at this 13.1 volts even after cut off.

      Delete
  36. Dear Sir, I am greatly amazed by your project cos I am new to electronics project. I am working out a 24 hours running exhaust fan with solar panel, so i need a battery connected with solar panel which constantly run the fan 24 hours 7 days per week for my house, does this work ?

    Thanks a lot experts.

    sincerely,
    Victor

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Dear Victor,

      Please see the following circuit, may be you can try this:

      http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2012/11/solar-invertercharger-circuit-for.html

      Delete
  37. can u plz tl me the rating of the solar cell??

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. You can use any panel with this circuit as long as its open circuit voltage does not exceed 32V.....

      Delete
  38. Sir Kindly tell what to do with this circuit if I have to make a charge controller circuit which supports atleast 150 amperes

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Please check out the second circuit provided in this article:

      http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2012/02/how-to-make-solar-inverter-circuit.html

      Delete
  39. LM338 is not available locally. can I replace it with LM317....?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. LM317 will charge only upto 10ah batteries...

      Delete
  40. please what should be the value of R3 for 12v 45AH battery.

    ReplyDelete
  41. Is this A right circuit or not?
    and for how much voltage and power rating is it used?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. 30V input....1.2v to 30V output @ 5amp max.

      Delete
  42. Hellow Swagatam,
    What is the typical voltage dropout in this circuit? And, I understand the values of R2, R3, and R4 but what determines the value of R1 to be 120 ohms in this circuit above? And finally, what modification do you suggest to use this circuit using a solar panel of (Voc 10.7V, Vmp 8.7V, with short circuit current of 0.34A)to charge a 6v 4.5AH battery? Thank you for your time to reply me.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hello, the diagram was taken from the datasheet of the IC lm338, you may refer it for more info here:

      http://www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/lm138.pdf

      for your requirement you may use an LM317 instead of 338, just adjust the preset to get 7V at the output, calculate R3 so that around 500 ma reaches the battery...that's all.

      Delete
  43. I have a question regarding the lm338. I have a 100 watt solar panel with current max at 5.8 amps. Will the lm338 be able to handle that current input?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. LM338 can handle max 5 amps, not beyond that, however you can increase it to any desired limits by adding an outboard transistor to it, you can see the example in the second diagram given in the following link:

      http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2012/02/how-to-make-solar-inverter-circuit.html

      Delete
  44. Normally speaking, a charge controller not only regulates the charging voltage and current but also cuts off the charge when battery is fully charged to prevent explosion. I don't understand what component is used to cut off charge to prevent overcharge on this ciruit? I read somewhere an addition of zener diode prevents overcharging, if so, can a zener (or any other suitable component) be added on this circuit to prevent from overcharging?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. The above circuit is a voltage regulator, not a controller...of course a controller can be easily added....i have discussed many automatic battery charger circuits in the blog, any of them may be attahed with the above design for making it a full fledged unit.

      a zener is not enough for controlling the circuit, you will have to incorporate a comparator stage for sensing and cutting of power during the threshold levels.

      Delete
  45. http://www.google.com.pk/search?q=simple+electronic+content+uploads+2009+solar+charger+control&hl=en&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=kKNOUdyUFcGFO8T1gfAF&ved=0CAoQ_AUoAQ&biw=1517&bih=714#imgrc=-3hZdM0fFsV41M%3A%3Bk9jsIKax_xUnXM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fsimpleelectronic.com%252Fwp-content%252Fuploads%252F2009%252F06%252Fsolar-charger-control.gif%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fsimpleelectronic.com%252F2009%252F06%252F29%252Fsolar-charger-controller-circuit-diagram%252F%3B765%3B534

    Hi swaghtam , I have designed this shunt mode solar charge controller(whose link ihav given above but the problem is that it directly connects my 20 volt solar panel to the battery which is not good for the battery. and the other prob is that it connects the battery to dummy load when set point voltage is reached (which drains the battery).
    so kindly help me solve 2 probs :
    1- how to ensure that battery gets no more than 14v from panel
    2-how to stop panel from overcharging without using dummy load

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Sultan,

      Add a rectifier diode exactly in between battery (+) terminal and junction of 68 ohms resistor and diode 1N5818.

      Adjust the 100k pot so that the mosfet conducts exactly at 14V

      Delete
  46. no ithink u didnt undersstand my question the mosfet conducts when set point is reached and ten dummy load starts conducting from the panel/battery and
    before mosfets is turned on at 14v the panel will be directly connected to the panel which is bad my question again stands:
    what do i do to not alow more than 14v at ny instance on battery
    and how do i turn off charging without using pathetic dummy load

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. the mosfet will not not allow the voltage to go above 14v, if the preset is adjusted to conduct at 14v, so your battery is always safe.

      but an over charge cut off facility is not there in this circuit, so you will have to add it externally

      the 68 ohm resistor must be reduced to 10 ohms or even less.

      the diode as mentioned in my previous comment is vital.

      Delete
  47. Dear sir
    i have 800v normal home inverter and 150 ah battery and 150 watt solar panel and over charge control of solar panel .can you make automatic dual charging circuit diagram and send me. my emai id is VIJAYJEERI@GMAIL.COM

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Dear Vijay,

      You can refer to the following relay change over circuit:

      http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2012/09/automatic-inverter-supply-and-mains.html

      Delete
  48. can u give me the circuit of overcharge cut off
    and do u want me to place the diode between battery positive and 68 ohm load?
    kindly specify the diode model and also the direction ( reverse or forward direction)

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. you can try the last circuit given here:

      http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2011/12/how-to-make-simple-low-battery-voltage.html

      yes that diode is required so that the battery voltage does not get shunted by the mosfet. use a 6A4 diode......cathode will go to battery (+)

      Delete
  49. Sir could you explain the working of the BC547 switch? How it would determine whether the battery is fully charged or not?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. The BC547 is positioned for current limiting, not for over charge cut off.

      Delete
  50. Respected Swagatam Majumdar, Me Rajib Banerjee, The most I think that with Normal 800va or more Inverter system if I add solar pannel to charge the same battery like hybrid solar inverter then need an external hybrid system for normal Inverter, which circuit can measure the battery charge full or not, if it not full by solar pannel then automatically switch to the grid current to fullfill the battery charge. Is it possible to make this type circuit device for externally adding with Normal Inverter then please help me and also Need to know the exact calculation of the need solar pannel WP for 800 va 150 Ah 12V battery or 180 ah 12 volt. what is the exact WATT (Working Load) calculation in VA, Thanks Please I am waiting for answer.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hello Rajib,

      You may refer to the following article:

      http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2012/10/solar-panelac-mains-relay-changeover.html

      You my replace the LM317 stage a higher rated regulator circuit,

      Delete
  51. Hello, i wanna ask you about this solar panel regulator bcz i have a battery of 12V 5AH/20HR my question is if this regulator can work well in charging even it is 5AH? The second is if i can replace LM338 by LM317.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. the above charger can be used to charge all batteries upto 50 ah maximum....

      Delete
    2. yes LM317 can be used for a 5ah battery.

      Delete
  52. R3 = .6 / (AH /10)

    Where do you get the resistors. Is one watt enough?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. you will get them in any electronic spare part shop.

      watts = 0.6 x AH/10

      Delete
  53. 12v 7ah battery is charging on this circuit to 100w solar panel . what is the value of resistors plz reply me

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. R3 = 0.6 ohms, 1 watt, R4 = 1.2 ohms 1 watt

      Delete
  54. Bat = 30Ah, 12V means 0.6/(30/10)= 0.2 ohms but is 1 watt resistor is enough for my circuit?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. multiplying 0.6 x 30/10 = 1.8 watt

      so it should be around 2 watts

      Delete
  55. Hello Sir, can this circuit generate an output of 24V? thank you

    ReplyDelete
  56. Hi Sir

    I have solar panel 300W, Charge controller 35A, Battery 150AH, How can I connect this to Home inverter, so that i can charge the battery from both the source solar and Main supply.

    If i connect charge controller directly to inverter how it will decide which source should be selected and in absence of AC power supply will it feed the inverter from solar power.

    Thanks
    Amit

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Amit,

      You will have to incorporate the following circuit to make the changeovers automatic:

      http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2012/09/automatic-inverter-supply-and-mains.html

      Delete
  57. Hello sir, wonderful circuit. I've built it and it works fine.
    I would like to ask, is there anyway to indicate if overcharging?
    Thank you sir.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hello thanks!

      It can be done by using the following circuit, just interchange pin2 and pin3 connections with each other.

      http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2011/12/how-to-make-simple-low-battery-voltage.html

      Delete
    2. Much appreciated sir, but as I read along your blog, you stated that it cannot work for a 24V output? I do not really understand the procedures given. Could you please advise? Thank you.

      Delete
    3. The circuit can be easily adjusted to produce any voltage from 1.25 to 30V....can you please show where it has been mentioned?

      Delete
    4. My apologizes sir, I meant in this Blog

      http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2011/12/how-to-make-simple-low-battery-voltage.html

      the indicator cannot work for 24V as I read along

      Delete
    5. yes because IC741 cannot tolerate more than 20V....

      Delete
    6. Is there another part I can use to solve this problem? thank you sir

      Delete
    7. use one opamp from the four inside LM324, it will work for voltages upto 30V

      Delete
    8. I see, Thank you so much for your help sir.

      Delete
  58. Excuse me sir, what is the NPN-transistor for? I am new to this sorry.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. It's for grounding the ADJ pin of the IC in case the the output load exceeds the preset current limit. This results in switching off of the IC and its output voltage to the load.

      Delete
    2. I see, thank you sir. So it works like an emergency switch off when the batteries get overcharged?

      Delete
    3. No, not for overcharge, it's for controlling overload or short circuit at the output, it will not cut off the battery when it's fully charged.

      Delete
  59. Pleased with the existence of your blog,
    I am very confused with my project about solar cell phone charger.
    In this case I use the former solar cell flashlights that produce voltages of 7-10 volts and want to reduce the voltage to 5 volts.
    I have tried to use LM7805 but is only capable of producing the range of 3 V around to the scorching sun.
    What types of ic regulator 5v with small amps??
    Thank you

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thank you!

      7805 is a very reliable IC and it will 100% produce 5V with a minimum of 7V input.

      Check the compare input and output voltages using 7805 without any load connected, you will find exact 5V at the output of 7805.

      Delete
  60. sir, is that the complete circuit for the charging station? 'cause i am planning to make one.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. No, this is just a basic regulator and not a complete charging station.

      Delete
  61. The relay u have specified has 5 pins nd i m confused where to connect what
    Plz hlp

    ReplyDelete
  62. hi sir.i like your post. considering im using 18.5v panel with 2.2amp current 70ah battery what will be the value of r3,r4 and pot?pls include the wattage. thank you

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. 2.2 amps will not charge a 70AH battery....you will need a 10amp panel for that.

      Delete
  63. i have 40 watt panel with 2.3 a operating current but it charges only at 1 amp. 40ah battery.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. what is the voltage of the panel and the battery?

      Delete
  64. i have 150 watt panel and its voltage is 15v to 20v, i want exact 12v for dc fans so is it the above circuit will work for me.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. yes it will work but only with a capacity of 5 amps output

      Delete
    2. what is the value of R3 than?
      and is it possible or any changes in the above circuit for 10amps output?
      thanks for quick reply

      Delete
    3. R3 = 0.6/charging rate in Amps
      R4 can be removed, it's not so important.

      charging rate should be 1/10th of the battery AH

      Delete
    4. i dont use any battery want to use dc fan with it so how to calculate R3 than?
      R3 = 0.6/5 amps = 0.12 ohms? is it correct if yes what will be the wattage
      thanks alot

      Delete
    5. if your fans max current limit is 5 amps, then it's correct.

      Delete
  65. Hello! Found this page very useful. Thank you for the detailed information. I am actually looking to build a solar charger to charge my NiMH rechargeable batteries which will in turn run a dc stepper motor. My NiMh batteries are 12V 2700mAh. The solar panels that I am using are TWO 6V panels with a power of 1.5W each. The DC motor’s working voltage is 12V and current is 0.33A. Will this circuit schematic work for the solar panel and the rechargeable batteries? How will I determine the resistor values? I will be very obliged if you can help me out. Also can I use a substitute transistor instead of the BC547 and use LM317T instead of LM338.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks!
      yes you can use the above shown circuit for your application. Since the charging current is within the range of the iC 317, it can be used in place of LM338.
      The pot P1 should be adjusted for getting 14V at the output for the battery under charge.
      The panel must be capable of generating in excess of 14V, may be a couple of voltages more.
      R4 is not important so it may be removed.
      R3 = 0.6/1 = 0.6 ohms 1/4 watt
      BC547 can be substituted with any identical NPN transistor

      Delete
    2. You are welcome,
      The circuit shown in the above artice includes a current control feature which can be dimensioned as per the requirement of the battery.
      The circuit which you have shown does not have this feature.
      For an automatic cutoff you can upgrade the previous circuit as per the last design provided in this article:

      http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2012/07/making-simple-smart-automatic-battery.html

      Delete
    3. Thank you so much Sir. Also, in the circuit above (not the upgraded version but the one that is shown above on this page), you have not used a capacitor? Could be get by without one?

      Also in the upgraded version (for which you provided the link in your above reply), I would need to use a NC switch? And the resistor values shown in the upgraded version are fixed or will they vary according to our battery specifications?
      Really appreciate all the help and your prompt replies.

      Delete
    4. capacitor would be required only if the supply is derived from an ac source and the bridge is 6 inches away from the IC, it's not required for a DC source such as a solar panel.

      sorry i did not understand what you meant by a NC switch?
      R2 should be replaced with a 10k pot for adjusting the charging voltage as per the requirements.
      and the BC547 emitter resistor must be selected as instructed in the above article.

      Delete
    5. I'm sorry to bombard you with a million questions but I had a few more queries (actually not so few). So for the circuit shown above on this page, are we using a toggle switch (one that is referred to S1 above)? and what is the inverter positive? So for my requirements where I am using two 6V solar panels (1.5 W each) to charge my 12V NiMh battery, the pot that I calculated was 2K. I just wanted to make sure that I was using the right one.

      For the new circuit that you mentioned, R2 would be replaced with a 10K pot (instead of the 2K that I am currently using) but the resistors connected to the IC741 chip would have the values as shown in the schematic or would they differ according to requirements? And we're only using one pot in the new schematic, right? The rest are fixed resistors? Also would it be ok if I used the npn transistor 2N2222 instead of BC547? Lastly for this new schematic, the diodes connected to the positive of the battery need to be connected to a switch?

      Sir, I am also somewhat confused about another facet. I am using my 12V NiMh batteries to run a DC stepper motor (driven by a H-bridge) and controlled by an arduino. the battery is used a backup power supply to run the motor whereas the primary supply would be AC (converted to DC through the AC to DC converter of the microcontroller). I was wondering firstly how would i connect my DC motor inorder to run it with the battery? Secondly can i incorporate some sort of option where the user can use either the direct power supply to run the motor or switch to running the motor from the NiMh battery pack?

      I apologize for the plethora of questions. I am not extremely familiar with the circuitry and therefore am encountering these questions. I will be grateful if you can help me out with my queries. Thank you so much. =)

      Delete
    6. Inverter is the unit that converts battery voltage to 220V AC mains, here S1 is a switch which can be used to shift the battery from charging mode to inverter mode once it gets fully charged from the LM338 circuit, so that the inverter can be used for obtaining the intended 220V AC

      A 10k pot will give a bigger adjustable range, so a 10k pot is better.
      other parts associated with IC 741 will remain as given.
      other than the 10k pot the 741 circuit includes a 10k preset which should be used for setting the over charge threshold.

      2N2222 will be fine.

      the battery (+) can be connected to the motor bridge via a 1N5402 diode and also stepped down to 5V via a 7805 IC for feeding separately to the arduino board, so basically that's 12V via diode to stepper bridge, and 5V via 7805 to arduino.

      With so many initial doubts and questions, I fear there could be 90% chance that you wouldn't succeed with these circuits, especially the 741 automatic charging circuit, because it's for experienced hobbyists who are already well versed with the basics.

      Delete
    7. Dear Sir,
      Thanks for patiently answering my questions. I know I'm a novice in this field but I guess I'll never learn until I experiment and make mistakes. Please excuse my ignorance though. So I had gone ahead and tried making the circuit above (I'm not trying to attempt the automatic cutoff circuit just yet) and well, the circuit 'seems' to be doing something but I'm not sure if it's functioning correctly. I just wanted to clarify whether I had my connections right. I did not include the switch and the inverter. For now I only want to recharge my battery using my solar panels and possibly control the charge current.

      So I had the positive of my solar panel connected to one side of the diode. The other side goes to PIN3 (input) of LM317. I have one leg of the 220 ohms resistor coming out from pin2 of LM317 and the other leg attached to a 2K pot. I also have a connection from Pin 1 of LM317 with this end (wiper and leg1) of the pot. The other leg of the pot is grounded. Then from Pin 1 of LM317 I have attached pin3 of the 2N222 transistor. Leg 1 of the transistor is grounded and leg 2 is connected to one side of a 2.2ohms resistor. The other side of the resistor is grounded. Finally I have the positive of the battery connected to PIN 3 of LM317 and the negative is grounded. I am not sure if my configuration is correct. Is there a connection between R2 and R3? Are the negative of the solar panel, Emitter of the transistor, one leg of R3, one leg of the pot R2 and the negative of the battery all commonly grounded?

      My desired charging current is 0.27A. I am using a 12V 2.7Ah NiMh battery and I am using 4 (4.5V) solar panels in series with a power rating of 1.5 W (each panel) and current rating of 0.334. When I connected an ammeter in series with the positive of the battery it gave me a 0.09A which doesnt seem alright. When I tested under a bright lamp right, the solar panel was giving a decent voltage output but the ammeter read 0.0A. When I took it outside, that was when it gave me 0.09A. I am not sure if my circuit is working correctly or I have connected everything correctly. Before connecting my battery to this circuit, I measured the voltage of the battery as 6.79 and after connecting it and putting it in the sun for a while, I disconnected and isolated the battery and tested the voltage which was then 11.04V. So is my circuit charging the battery? And why is the current so low? Should I not be getting something close to 0.27 A.

      Again would appreciate it a lot if you can help me clear my confusions. Thank you :)

      Delete
    8. Dear Zara,

      You will have refer to te datasheet of the IC 317 to correctly understand its pinout connections.
      However, with the present connections if the pot rotation is giving a variable output then you can assume the connections to be right.
      yes all the negatives sould be made into a common line as given in the diagram.
      with an ammeter connected short the output of the circuit and check the current, if it's equal to the panels maximum amp value (1.5amp max for 317 IC) then you can be sure that the circuit and the panel are working coirrectly.
      For 12V set the output to 14V, otherwise the battery will not initiate the charging process.

      Delete
    9. Dear Sir,
      Thank you so much for being patient enough to answer my barrage of questions. I tried the above circuit without the inverter and it seems to be charging my 12V NiMh batteries. I had a few questions that I still had some doubts about.

      Firstly, I have not tested running the DC motor on the battery as yet but I was wondering whether I will be able to use the above circuit to continuously charge my battery even while it is connected to the motor and running the motor?
      Secondly, I was also confused as to how to determine Icharging or the current that is charging the battery. Does the ammeter connected in series with the battery positive and one leg of the R1 resistor measure Icharging? If that is not equal to the solar panel's max current but is below the charging current set by the transistor and R3, is the circuit working? Is the charging current provided to the battery different than the solar panel max current? And is the transistor basically also helping in trickle charging the battery? And would I be able to change Icharging? Or the current I am using to charge the battery?
      Lastly, I am currently using 4 solar panels to get a dc input voltage but the system I am designing needs to be compact. Would there be a way I can use only a small solar panel with a low dc voltage and somehow step it up to charge the battery? I do not want the charging current t be affected though. Would I be able to use a transformer (or that would be only in the case of AC current) or a boost converter? If it is possible, could you please explain how I can integrate it in the above circuit? So if I have a panel outputting 4.5 volts and I want to step that up to 14V to charge my battery, would that be possible?
      Sir, I would be very grateful if you could shine some light on my queries. I apologize for bombarding you with so many questions every time. Greatly appreciate your efforts. Thank you.

      Delete
    10. Dear Zara, here are the answers:

      I have not tested running the DC motor on the battery as yet but I was wondering whether I will be able to use the above circuit to continuously charge my battery even while it is connected to the motor and running the motor?

      No, including the motor will need the charging curent to be increased which might affect the battery when motor is switched OFF.

      Secondly, I was also confused as to how to determine Icharging or the current that is charging the battery. Does the ammeter connected in series with the battery positive and one leg of the R1 resistor measure Icharging?

      Yes, you can see the CHRG current in that way.

      If that is not equal to the solar panel's max current but is below the charging current set by the transistor and R3, is the circuit working?

      The current reading could be equal to the set value by R3 or less than that, but never above that no matter how large the input current may be..

      Is the charging current provided to the battery different than the solar panel max current? And is the transistor basically also helping in trickle charging the battery? And would I be able to change Icharging? Or the current I am using to charge the battery?

      R3 will not cause trickle charging. It can produce a lot more than that.

      R3 can be changed only to change the charging current rate of the battery.

      Lastly, I am currently using 4 solar panels to get a dc input voltage but the system I am designing needs to be compact. Would there be a way I can use only a small solar panel with a low dc voltage and somehow step it up to charge the battery? I do not want the charging current t be affected though. Would I be able to use a transformer (or that would be only in the case of AC current) or a boost converter? If it is possible, could you please explain how I can integrate it in the above circuit? So if I have a panel outputting 4.5 volts and I want to step that up to 14V to charge my battery, would that be possible?

      Boost circuit can be used for increasing the solar panel voltage, only if the VxI of the panel is well above the VxI requirement of the output

      Delete
  66. sir can you give me a simple schematic of a charge controller able to charge 200ah battery? my panels are 200 watts. parts in the philippines are very hard to find. thanks

    ReplyDelete
  67. sir good day can you give me a simple schematic of a solar charge controller able to charge 200ah thru a 200 watts panel. parts here in the philippines are very hard to find so if possible use of common parts is very much appreciated. thanks and more power...

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Aureliano,you cam try this simple zero drop circuit for your application:

      http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2013/08/simple-zero-drop-solar-charger-circuit.html

      Delete
    2. with the schematics above what will be the value of r3 if my battery is 200aH? is it 120 or 120k? thanks

      Delete
    3. sorry, 200AH is far beyond the range of this circuit.

      Delete
  68. ok will lm337 work instead of 338? i cant find 338 here. and assuming a 50 watt panel what is the maximum wattage of an inverter it can operate safely? 1 have 1000 watts modified sine inverter. thanks again

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. 337 is a negative regulator, you can use it but the configuration will need to be reversed entirely for getting the same results.

      Delete
  69. Hi Swagatam,

    I have solar panels 240W, 30.04V,7.4A, (generating 31-32.5 V in sun with no load) Open circuit 36.5V, 8.4A. I want to build a Charge controller for Battery 150AH/180AH and want to connect this to Home inverter ( 12V single Battery/24V Double Battery) to be given to two schools I want to charge the battery from both the source solar (preferably during day time ) and Mains supply (during rainy reason/night).

    Please let me know if I can use the above circuit such that inverter decides which power source should be selected and in absence of Solar power supply it should feed from AC.

    Regards
    Gopal

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Gopal, LM338 will not be able to charge a 150ah battery.

      you can use two LM196 in parallel for the same, but a 30V panel with 7amp current won't be combatilble for a a LM196 or any such regulator
      You will probably need a buck converter circuit, which would convert 30 x 7.4 parameter to 14 x 15 for the required charging

      Delete
  70. Hello,

    can you please tell me what modifications to be made on your schematics in order to obtain a 12V output to drive directly a 12V dc motor of max. 90W?

    Thanks in advance for you answer.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi, for 90 watts you will have to use LM196 instead of LM338, rest everything will remain as is except R4 that can be removed since it does not play an important role in the design.

      P1 should be a 10k pot, and R3 is calculated as follows:

      R3 = 0.6/7 = 0.085 ohms or any nearby value will do,

      P1 must be set to obtain 12V at the output....

      the input must be above 13V but less than 30V
      the IC will need an heatsink.

      Delete
  71. Hey,

    I tried this one, but I failed with it. I have 2 solar panels (each 4,5V) LM338, BC547, 10k pot and other stuff (resistors, diodes). I connected it, but it doesn't work as it should. If I change the position of the solar panels, the voltage changes. It should not alter or am I missing something somewhere. Isn't LM338 here to adjust the voltage so it is not changing?
    Thanks

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. the IC is not designed to boost an input voltage, it will only produce a max output that may be 1V lower than the input and a minimum that may be equal to 1.25V.

      In your case the achievable output range would be from 1.25V to 3.7V

      Delete
    2. I connected solar panels in series, so I get between 8V and 9V. In the end I set it to be 5V (just like the USB port), but when the light is changing, the output voltage is changing. Isn't that bad for the battery?
      And thanks for your fast reply :)

      Delete
    3. LM338 ICs have excellent line regulation feature, meaning the output will never deviate more than +/-1% regardless of input voltage changes.

      I think there may be something wrong with your circuit connections or the IC could be faulty (duplicate)

      Delete
    4. You are right. I'll check my circuit again. I hope IC is not faulty.
      Thanks and I'll replay again to let you know how I did.

      Delete
  72. i have 6V/2W solar panel, will this provide an output of 1.5-4.5 volts? i will use an eveready rechargeable battery 1.5V 1300mAh for the output battery

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. yes it will, you can use the above mentioned circuit for the application

      Delete
    2. do we need to use a heatsink for the voltage regulator?

      Delete
    3. sir, good day! we have 6V/1W solarpanel, what value of R3 do we need to use if we have 2500mah or 1500 mah battery? Thanks sir.

      Delete
    4. sir, good day! we have 6V/1W solar panel, what value of R3 do we need to use if we have 2500mah or 1500mah battery? thanks sir.

      Delete
    5. hessika, for Li-thium ion use the formula

      R3 = 0.6/AH

      for lead acid

      R3 = 0.6 x 10/AH

      Delete
  73. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I have explained the formula in the above comment.

      you can use LM317 instead of LM338

      Delete
    2. thank you sir. and sorry, for i didn't know that my reply has been sent already. another question sir, can we use the circuit in other application instead of using it as battery charger?? like can we connect some LED lights as it's output??? thank you sir,. :)

      Delete
    3. sure hessika, you can use the circuit as a LED driver also, I already have a few articles whee the same configuration has been implemented as LED drivers

      Delete
    4. sir i just want to ask about the formula in finding the value of R3, what is the basis of its derivation?

      Delete
    5. R3 = 0.6 x 10/battery AH...... for lead acid batteries

      Delete
  74. can we also have your articles about LED drivers sir,, ?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. hessika, I have already published many articles on LED drivers, just type and search "led driver" you'll find them all....

      Delete
  75. sir, where did you derive that formula?? "0.6/x=AH/10" ?? where did it came from??

    ReplyDelete
  76. sir do you have complete documentation of this project??

    ReplyDelete

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Readers are advised to proceed with the construction of the presented circuits only after understanding the concepts from the core. Not adhering to this can lead to failures and frustrations.