Readers are advised to proceed with the construction of the presented circuits only after understanding the concepts from the core. Not adhering to this can lead to failures and frustrations.

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Sunday, April 22, 2012

Make This Simple Motion Detector/Sensor Alarm Circuit

Motion detector or sensor alarm is a device which detects the presence of a motion or movement within a certain fixed range and raises an alarm on doing so.

 You might find many electronic circuits related to motion sensing but most of them incorporate shadow detection through a single LDR, which does not work very effectively.

Because a shadow might not always be very sharp enough and at times the circuit may just fail to interpret it.

The present motion detector/sensor circuit is also based on similar principles but it detects a motion by differentiating the light level using two LDRs, this makes the system more sensitive and works irrespective of the shadow intensity.

The circuit diagram shows a simple configuration consisting of a couple of opamps from the IC LM324.

The two opamps are arranged in a differential mode and as comparators.

Both the comparators consists of their own discrete light sensing components in the form of LDRs.

The presets provided with the opamps decide at what point the outputs of the both the opamps  remain on the same level, that is at zero potential.

Also the above condition is met when the light level over both the LDRs are approximately at the same levels.

However the moment the light level (or the shade level) on the LDRs differ even slightly, the comparators instantly detects this and one of the relevant opamp outputs goes high.

The transistor at the output immediately triggers and activates the relay and the connected alarm mechanism.

The LDRs must be positioned at least a feet apart for proper optimization of the detection level.

Also the LDRs and the nit itself must be positioned in such a way that the ambient light directly become incident over the sensors.



How to Set Up the Circuit.

You will require a lot of dexterity for setting up the circuit accurately. It may be done as follows:

Let a constant source of light fall on the LDRs with uniform intensity.

Now without letting any of your body part disturbing the light source, gently and skilfully adjust the two presets such that both the LEDs just shut off.

That's it, your circuit is now all set and ready to detect even the slightest of motions across any of the LDRs.

However it must be ensured that the light source intensities on the LDRs does not change, or else the set up could get rattled.

63 comments:

  1. Can this be made to run on 9 volts?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Yes, but the relay will also need to be selected appropriately.

      Delete
    2. can you please tell what are pins 1, 2 and 3?
      op amp pins have names, can you please name the all 1-3 and 4-6 pins??

      Delete
  2. wow this is really ingenious stuff but wud'nt an electro magnet wit its output connected to an inverter n then to a circuit wit a transistor switch n a lamp be easier

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. thanks! but I failed to understand your point...

      Delete
  3. Hi Sir,

    Can you please help me how can I use this circuit as a switch that automatically switches off light when there is no motion? My purpose is to conserve energy.

    Thanks a lot!

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi,

      You can refer to the following article, it explains the circuit, and the method for achieving the desired results.

      http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2012/10/how-to-understand-and-connect-passive.html

      Delete
  4. Hallo,

    Would you help me for shadow sensor alarm analysis ?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. for example, which sides how many curent is going, when is going 2A but we will give greater then 2A what will be suitable ,etc... I hope this imformation will proide for you information . And I am doing a search, and I have not more time would help me a little quickly if this informations are enough for you ? Already now, thank you for evrything.

      Delete
    2. the circuit will work at 12V, current should not be less than 500mA, higher current will not do any harm as long as voltage is maintained at 12V

      Delete
  5. Hi, is this 12v in AC or DC? if its DC, then is there anyway make it work on AC?
    Thanks,
    waiting for your reply.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. use a 12v AC/DC adapter for operating the circuit.

      Delete
    2. plz explain the connections of relay pins in this circuit

      Delete
    3. you can refer to the following article:

      http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2012/01/how-to-understand-and-use-relay-in.html

      Delete
    4. If i give 24v dc to the circuit instead of 12v what will happen?

      Delete
  6. plz tell me how to connect the relay?

    ReplyDelete
  7. Hi, what is the component for the A1 n A2??

    ReplyDelete
  8. anyone can help, what type of sensor can detect rf tags 2 meters range.
    pm me at wilfredo_batoy5@yahoo.com

    ReplyDelete
  9. Can we use op amp 741 instead of lm324?
    I have to make the same project using two 741 op amps.

    ReplyDelete
  10. can you please provide a clearer circuit diagram? please.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Please click the above diagram to enlarge, you will see a clearer and a much bigger diaram

      Delete
  11. 12V battery is connected with NC and RL 1 with NO? but then where is SPDT connected?
    can you please provide another circuit diagram?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. 12V is connected with the relay coil (the square box),

      N/C (the upper contact) is open, not connected to anything.

      N/O(the lower contact) and the central pole goes to the load which needs to be activated such as an alarm etc. via the AC supply.

      Delete
    2. so the central pole will be connected to one end of AC source and the N/O will be connected to one end of Alarm?
      and the other ends of AC source and Alarm would be connected with each other?

      Delete
    3. yes that's correct.

      You can replace AC suply with the existing 12V DC, if the alarm is a DC operated unit.

      Delete
  12. Are P1 and P2 potentiometer? Why are we using potentiometer here?

    Can you please tell us the exact arrangement of LEDs and LDRs that where should we place them? It would be very helpful if you can upload a picture of actual circuit, showing us how to arrange LDRs and LEDs. Please.
    Thank you.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. P1 should be a preset, while P2 can be a pot for fine adjustments.

      The above adjustments should be such that the output LEDs and the relay stay shut off under the specified light or illumination conditions over the LDRs

      The angle or the position of the illumination over the LDR must not change once the adjustments are done.

      The position of the LDRs is not critical but should be at least a foot apart which again must not be changed once the presets and the pot are adjusted as explained above.

      Delete
    2. what should be the distance between LDR and LED? How should I arrange them so that the lights from LEDs directly fall on LDRs?
      It would be very helpful if you'll provide us with a picture of actual project.
      I am confused.

      Delete
    3. The above circuit does not require an LED ight, the normal house light or a night lamp will be enough to keep the circuit in detection mode, when somebody comes in between one of the LDRs and the light, the output will trigger.

      It was built long time ago, the prototype was dismantled for a different project so cannot provide the pictures.

      Delete
  13. can I use ua741cn instead of lm324?
    can you please explain the pin config according to this diagram? Please.
    http://www.google.com.pk/imgres?imgurl=http://www.hobbytronics.co.za/content/images/thumbs/0001617_ua741cn_opamp_dip.jpeg&imgrefurl=http://www.hobbytronics.co.za/p/452/ua741cn-opamp-dip&h=135&w=337&sz=10&tbnid=FDySuEPqt41z4M:&tbnh=54&tbnw=134&zoom=1&usg=__xl5sIi-Vr9EFV61cLgv1X2NOz_c=&docid=XH7NYp6z-I32IM&sa=X&ei=OEo0UvieOPHb7AblzIBY&ved=0CDkQ9QEwAg&dur=364

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. A1 pins are same as 741, for A2 pin6 is pin2 of 741, and pin5 is pin3 of 741.

      Delete
  14. can you please explain the working principle of this circuit? I mean, what happens when the resistance of LDR decrease? What's the purpose of transistor and diode here?
    Please explain in detail.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. A1 and A2 are positioned as voltage comparators which trigger as per the resistances of the LDRs, you can Google how 741 comparators work to learn more.

      Delete
  15. I've made this circuit. Now when I connect +12 source, under the illumination condition LED2 turns on. When I change P1, LED1 turns on and LED2 turns off.
    please tell me how should I adjust the P1 and P2 under illumination condition.
    what should be the values of P1 and P2 under illumination?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Adjust it very carefully so that both the LEDs remain switched OFF under the given light conditions.

      Make sure your shadow or any other interruption does not come across the light source.

      If possible I'll try to modify the circuit with a different output parameter so that the above difficult setting can be avoided.

      Delete
    2. it's not happening. When LED1 turns on, LED2 turns off nad vice versa.
      Also under illumination condition the relay is switched on and although the LEDs give some response when shadow occurs on LDRs but the relay is not giving any response.

      Delete
    3. Relay will NOT switch OFF as long as any of the outputs are high, both should be completely off for making the relay off.

      Anyway, I have present a modified output relay stage in the above article which you can integrate with the top circuit.

      With this circuit you won't need to adjust the presets too much, the relay will operate as soon as a movement is detected.

      In the given circuit DO NOT connect LEDs at the outputs of A1/A2, connect the 0.22u ends directly with A1/A2 outputs. You can connect an LED parallel to the relay coil with a series 1K resistor.

      Delete
  16. Good Day..

    I would like to inquire if this is only a one (1) diagram circuit, i mean are there more of this circuit diagram in making a home made motion detector/sensor??

    And also can you please estimate how much would be the total cost in USD if i make this?

    Thank you...

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Good day,

      The above design is a simpler option, but you can find many other more accurate ones on the net which are a bit more complex, though.

      The above circuit would cost around $2 without the power supply.

      Delete
  17. SIR WHAT ARE THE VALUES OF P1 & P2 FOR SETTING UP????
    AND SIR TELL ME ARE ALL POTENTIOMETER'S LEGS CONNECTED?
    IF YES SIR , THEN HOW THEY ARE CONNECTED??

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. You will have to adjust P1 and P2 such that both LED stay shut-off. Read the set up procedure given above.

      Only the center and any outer terminal is used, the remaining third is not used. for example connect R1 to center terminal of P1, then connect any one of the outer terminal of P1 to ceter terminal of P2, finally connect any one of the outer terminals of P2 with ground and pin5 of A2

      Delete
  18. Does anyone on here know how to make a wireless system?

    ReplyDelete
  19. THANKS SIRR ..
    MY PROJECT IS READY ONLY BECAUSE OF ""YOU"".THANKS SIR.
    SIR I WANT TO INCREASE ITS SENSITIVITY, WHAT SHOULD I DO BECAUSE ITS SENSITIVITY IS LOW. IWANT TO ENHANCE IT

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. you are welcome Abdul,

      actually the circuit is very sensitive, but unless & until some kind of shadow falls on any of the LDRs the circuit won't sense....so it's important for the object to block some light at least, for making the circuit sense it....use slightly powerful lights or place the LDRs wide apart to make it more responsive.

      Delete
  20. sir problem is coming that only led corresponding to A1 IS GLOWING.. LED 2 IS NOT WORKING..

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. replace P2 with a 4.7k fixed resistor and then check by varying P1.

      Delete
    2. OK SIR... I WILL DO THAT CHANGING & INFORM YOU

      Delete
  21. SIR NOW CIRCUIT IS WORKING OPPOSITE.WHEN LDR'S DETECT LIGHT IT STARTS ALARM AND VICE VERSA.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Connect LEDs as shown in the diagram to see the response....

      Delete
  22. sir circuit is working now but transister is not triggering .so alarm does not working.
    what should i do????

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. If you connect everything correctly as shown in the diagram the transistor and the relay will surely function. check transistor polarity, relay diode polarity, transistor base voltage etc.

      Delete
  23. Sir please evaluate the circuit completely and the value of the ldr sensors

    I used 12v ac to dc charger as it has positive charge inside the pin and negative charge outside the pin. As i give negative charge to positive terminal the circuit works. But when i connect positive terminal to positive charge it does not works .
    Plzzz guide me

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Prince,I could not understand your problem, the above circuit has all the details you need.

      LDRs should have around 10k to 50k resistance when exposed to ambient light, check this without connecting them to the circuit.

      Check the output of your adapter/charger with a meter and then connet the terminals as per the polarity shown in the diagram.

      Delete
  24. Sir, Leds are glowing fully and are not turning off by rotating the pots when pots are connected same as in circuit diagram..
    But when i reconnected the poted in another way as you told ABDUL BASIT It also gives no result. Plzz help meee

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Prince, if you have built it exactly as shown in the circuit then definitely it should produce the intended results.

      Check the circuit connections and polarities there could be something wrong with them.

      Follow the setting instructions very carefully and do it exactly as it's mentioned.

      Delete
    2. note: pin3 and 6 of the IC are not linked with the presets....

      Delete

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