Friday, April 20, 2012

Semi Automatic Water Level Controller/Timer Circuit

The explained circuit of a water level controller circuit is based on a timer circuit whose time delay is first adjusted to match the filling time of the tank, as the the tank fills, the timer delay also simultaneously lapses and its output switches OFF the water pump.
Actually the circuit was requested to me by Mr. Ali Adnan who is one of the fans of this blog. Let's first hear what he had to say:

"Hi, Swagatam I like your blog very much. I have a problem which i think is common in every home, the problem is: I have a Water Pump(which sucks water from bore) installed at my home, when my brother switch on the water pump he always forget(u know bhulakar one:P) to switch it off back:( and water tank gets over flowed and water runs in upper portion of our house:(
I want you to help me to design a timer circuit to automatically turn off the pump at given time. I am not expert in electronics but i like to play with electronic and knows very well how to solder and always trying to do some little experiments with help of your blog. Please provide me the circuit for above sited problem with complete parts list and diagram."

So as you all know I cannot turn down honest requests, therefore sat down to design the following circuit, let's study its functioning details:

The CIRCUIT DIAGRAM of this water level timer controller circuit utilizes a single versatile IC 4060 for generating the required time delay.
P1 is initially adjusted through some trial and error so that it exactly matches the filling time of the water tank which needs to be monitored.

The circuit is initiated by pressing the push button SW1 when the N/O contacts of the relay are bypassed.
This momentarily switches ON the transformer which powers the IC instantaneously.
This instantly triggers the transistor and also the relay which takes over and latches ON the circuit.
Now the circuit holds ON even after the push button is released, everything happens within half a second.
The above operation also simultaneously switches ON the pump motor which starts pushing water in the tank.
Once the timer counting finishes, pin #3 becomes high, T1 conducts and switches OFF T2 and the relay.
The relay contacts reverts to its original state switching OFF the motor as well as the the entire circuit, halting the motor pump and hopefully inhibits the tank from overflowing.
Parts procured by Ali Adnan



Parts List

R1, R3 = 1M, 1/4 watt CFR
R2 = 1K, 1/4 watt CFR
R4(T1 base) = 22K, 1/4 watt CFR
R4(T2 base) = 10K, 1/4 watt Cfr
P1 = 1M preset horizontal
C1 = 1uF/25V
C2 = 1uF/25V non polar, any type will do
C3 = 1000uF/25V
D1, D2 = 1N4007,
Relay = 12V/SPDT/contact current as per motor specification
SW1 = Bell push type of button
IC1 = 4060
T1 = BC547
T2 = 8050, or 2N2222
TR1 = 0-12V/500mA

The above circuit was also built and appreciated by Mr.Raj Mukherji, one of my friends and a keen follower of this blog. Let's learn more about his experience with the circuit.

Hi Swagatam,

Thank you very much for the timer circuit.

I have made the prototype on a general purpose PCB and so far found it to work accurately for my purpose: 5 min, 10 min and 15 min delay respectively (with the P1 set at 15.4 Kohms for 5 min delay etc). I am planning this weekend to house it in a 4x6 box and test it on actual load.

So far, I was looking at the above comments and would like to add something regarding the question raised by Mr. Khan on the relay. For my purpose, I am intending to use this timer on an AC 50 Hz, 220 - 240 volts, Crompton Greaves self priming mono-set pump, type - Miniwin II, 0.37 Kwatt/0.50 HP. So, I have purchased a 12 volt SPST relay which has a contact current tolerence of ~7 Amps. I think this is sufficient for my purpose and also for any kind of small pumps/loads. Isn't it?

I will definitely share with you the picture of the completed project.

Thank you,
Kind regards,
Raj Kumar Mukherji

My answer to Raj:

Hi Raj,

That's great! Thank you very much for the update.

A 7amp contact would mean a maximum capacity of 7*220 = 1540 watts, that's probably more than sufficient for the purpose.

I am sure the pictures that you will send will be loved by the other readers also, so please do send them here for publication.

Yes, surely the link will be very useful for the readers who would want to learn the timing calculation more accurately.

Thanks and Best Regards.

PCB Layout for the Above Circuit, Designed and Submitted By Mr. Raj Kumar Mukherji:

(Component-side view)




Pictures of the completed water level timer controller prototype, sent by Mr. Raj Kumar Mukherji:









The following diagram shows how the above circuit may be used with a solar panel supply,  and with a DC motor connected at the output. The design was requested by Mr. Mehmet



103 comments:

  1. bro so nice of you, you are gr888888, you are serving manking without any interest. GOD Bless you and your family.

    bro can you plz post its diagram for print a PCB??

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Adnan,

      Thanks very much, when I get time I'll try to add the PCB layout also to this article, in the meantime for trial purpose, you may try building it over a general circuit board.

      Regards.

      Delete
  2. bro what is the minimum and maximum timer can we set for this controler??

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Bro I don't remember the calculation, just play with it a little and you will come to by yourself at what points of the preset setting what timing are obtained....

      Delete
  3. bro one more question, what if the motor is runing on timer and AC power fails(Load Sheding) and restore back after 1hr? is motor stays off or turn on after AC power restore? I want it stay off after AC power restore.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. No worries bro, if AC fails, and restores back, the circuit will remain switched OFF and will not start until the push button is pressed again.....

      Delete
  4. bro R4 is mention 2 times in diagram, in parts list total 4 Resistors and in diagram there are 5 resistors. plz correct. and plzzz plzzz update parts list with full names and full detail because shop keepers always askes something extra which i always don't know:D like he asks what watts resistor do u want. and u mention C2 0.22uF/V...?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Yes bro that's a printing mistake in the diagram, both are 1K, I've updated the list, give the shopkeeper as it is given in the list.

      Delete
  5. :D bro i am again here, in parts list R2 is missing now which is installed near P1 in diagram. is it also 1K 1/4watt??

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Yes Bro...too many mistakes, it's also 1K 1/4 watt...

      Delete
    2. Hi Sir!

      Is there any change in the Parts List

      R1, R3 = 1M, 1/4 watt
      R4, R2 = 1K(3 nos), 1/4 watt
      P1 = 100K preset horizontal
      C1 = 1uF/25V
      C2 = 0.22uF disc ceramic
      C3 = 1000uF/25V
      D1, D2 = 1N4007,
      Relay = 12V/SPDT
      SW1 = Bell push type of button
      IC1 = 4060
      T1, T2 = BC547
      TR1 = 0-12V/500mA

      Delete
    3. Sir,

      I've connected as per the circuit diagram but the relay cuts off in just a second. I've doubt here...Since this is a push button type switch the power supply to the transformer is also momentary and whole circuit is off including the supply to the relay. Please clarify this doubt.

      Regards

      Jagadish

      Delete
    4. Hi Jagan,

      When the button is pressed, the relay contacts activate and bypass the push button and the circuit latches ON through the relay contacts.

      You may connect a 40uF/25V capacitor across the relay coil, for stabilizing it.

      Regards

      Delete
    5. the capacitor should be 470uF and not 40uF.....

      Delete
    6. Sir!

      It works Perfectly fine...Thank you very much...I had missed a connection which created all this trouble and confusion. Thanks for the explanation which made me relook at the circuit diagram.

      Regards

      Jagan S

      Delete
  6. no problem bro you are doing very well

    ReplyDelete
  7. Bro i want to ask you a question. what is the truth about Power saving devices? if its ture then can we buid it by ourself?

    one is here check link below

    http://www.szgyn.com/sdp/441039/4/pd-2456359/2192838-1231148/POWER_SAVER_FOR_AIR_CONDITIONING.html

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Bro according to me, power savers do make electrical lines cleaner and increase appliance life, but as far as power saving is concerned, it won't save you a penny, or else every house would have had one.

      Delete
  8. then lets design one for inductive loads like AC and Fridge? what you say bro?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. The concept is not feasible, that's why nobody could make it so far....

      Delete
  9. hmmm. bro one more question about the relay we are using in our above Water Level Controller/Timer Circuit. 12V/SPDT Relay, is there any specific Amp of said relay need to tell a shopkeeper????

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Bro...what is the wattage of your motor pump? Relay contact rating will depend on that.

      Delete
  10. Hi, bro check the data sheet of motor. I think its 1100watts or some less. 220V and 4 to 5 Amp.
    http://www.shahzadpumps.com/Prod/pak3.html

    I also purchased parts of our project. I am attaching pictures of parts. I request you to have a look on parts pictures and check if and confirm if any I should replace. plz also check the relay specs in picture.
    some parts were missing at shop but I ordered the missing part at shop. IC4060 is missing, 0.22uF Ceramic Disk Cap missing and 1uF/25V Cap missing.

    Parts images links are below:
    Relay:
    http://imageshack.us/photo/my-images/39/relayy.jpg/
    http://imageshack.us/photo/my-images/513/relay1.jpg/
    All Parts:
    http://imageshack.us/photo/my-images/534/dsc000241a.jpg/


    Regards.
    Ali

    ReplyDelete
  11. bro if we consider moter as 1HP and as per calculation formula the 1 HP is equal to 746Watts. but if we apply other formula V*AMP=watts then its 220*5=1100watts. what should we consider it??

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. OK bro, just divide the motor wattage with the voltage, you will get the current rating of the relay contacts, That's all....The type of the relay won't matter as long as the contacts are rated as above and relay coil voltage is equal to the supply voltage of the circuit, that is 12v.

      Delete
  12. hey friend,,
    i loved your concept..i also wants to make this kind of project at my home.
    but i wants to make it little different..i want just indicator.that shows water level only..in short control should be manually .can u help me on this?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Hitesh,

      I'll design the circuit and tell you when it's published...

      Regards.

      Delete
    2. Hi Hitesh,

      Here's the circuit you wanted:

      http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2012/04/make-this-water-level-indicator-circuit.html

      Regards.

      Delete
  13. bro plz check the pictures of parts and guide me that the parts are ok or i need to replace any??

    ReplyDelete
  14. and also check the picture of relay contacts and guide me which contacts i have to use. there are 5 contacts on relay but no one is marked.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Bro, those are spot on, go ahead.

      For relay details, check out the below given link:

      http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2012/01/how-to-understand-and-use-relay-in.html

      By the way where's the IC? The heart of the circuit.

      Delete
  15. hahahaha not with me yet:D soon I'll get it

    ReplyDelete
  16. Dear Swagatam,

    Here is the PCB layout for the "Semi Automatic Water Level Controller/Timer Circuit":

    http://www.use.com/23c810466e4044f21b31

    I will share the actual image of the timer shortly.

    Thanks and regards,
    Raj

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks very much Raj,

      I'll put it in the above article, it would be of great help to the readers.

      This time there wasn't any problem publishing the comment from you:-)

      Regards.

      Delete
  17. gr8 work by Mr. Raj for making PCB design. I need some help. plz mark polarities of parts like Capacitors on PCB diagram provided by Mr. Raj. It will be great help for persons like me. because i am not too much technical regarding this.

    plz update soon so that i can start building Project.

    Thanks

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks Ali,

      Only C3 has polarity, the small dash in the symbol is the positive which is connected to the diode D1, rest all the capacitors are strictly non polar.

      Regards.

      Delete
  18. Thanks bro you are gr888888

    ReplyDelete
  19. Bro i am facing problem to produce 2 parts from nearby market.

    1. IC 4060
    2. 0.22uF Disk Ceramic Cap

    IC I've found from market is labeled with the name of HCF4060BE i am attaching its picture and datasheet, plz check and tell me that is it right one or not.

    and 0.22 Disk Ceramic Cap what i found from market labeled with 1H224J i am attaching its picture too. plz guide me.

    One more thing i've found in Mr. Raj's Diagram which is confusing me, if you see the P1's 3rd leg which is towards the D1, that leg of P1 is floating, there is no connection on that leg, plz guide.

    ReplyDelete
  20. Bro i am facing problem to produce 2 parts from nearby market.

    1. IC 4060
    2. 0.22uF Disk Ceramic Cap

    IC I've found from market is labeled with the name of HCF4060BE i am attaching its picture and datasheet, plz check and tell me that is it right one or not.
    IC Image: http://img822.imageshack.us/img822/553/ichfc4060be.jpg

    IC DataSheet: http://www.st.com/internet/com/TECHNICAL_RESOURCES/TECHNICAL_LITERATURE/DATASHEET/CD00000386.pdf

    and 0.22 Disk Ceramic Cap what i found from market labeled with 1H224J i am attaching its picture too. plz guide me.
    Cap Image: http://imageshack.us/photo/my-images/717/1h224jsm.jpg/

    One more thing i've found in Mr. Raj's Diagram which is confusing me, if you see the P1's 3rd leg which is towards the D1, that leg of P1 is floating, there is no connection on that leg, plz guide.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Bro,

      All the parts looks OK to me.

      The presets center pin and any of the other pin can be used, so Raj's drawing is correct.

      Use the center and the right pin OR center and the left pin.

      Regards.

      Delete
  21. it means 1H224J Cap is right one???? is it ceramic type??

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. It is not ceramic, it's MKT, which is better.

      Delete
  22. Thank you very much bro u saved me much time:)
    bro one more thing is there any alternative for C1 1uF/25V??

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. You can use any value for C1, less value will produce smaller time delays and large values will give bigger time delays....

      Delete
  23. Hi, Can you please share the link of the post for the following Gadget (I am sure you must have it on ur blog)

    Unlike Ali Adnan's house, I have the water supply from pipeline. So I need a circuit diagram for the following need. I am fine to switch on the motor as we need to check if there is water in line of not. But after that I want a circuit which when the water level is met, shuts down both Motor and this said circuit as well so that no unncessary electricity is used.
    I hope I was able to describe the need!
    Please help in this regard.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. You may check the circuit given in the following link:

      http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2012/04/cheap-semi-automatic-tank-water-over.html

      Regards.

      Delete
  24. i want to know weather we can design a circuit that starts ant stop the current flow through it with time. the time was given by user
    ex:- i want to charge my lptop for 3 hours. now i will on the switch on arter 3 hours the laptop should not get charged the current should be charged

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. You mean a timer based charger circuit? Yes it would be quite simple to design using a timer IC such as 4060.

      Delete
  25. Can any one help to provide the circuit for the following case problem......

    If the water supply is at 4 a.m. or any hour, the system should start the pump, check the flow and fill up the tank.
    When the tank is full, it will automatically switch off the pump.

    In case there is no supply, it should switch off the motor after one minute.
    The control system should re check after a predetermined time of 10 minuts and follow the same process.

    This would be done 8 times a day (four time in morning supply hours and four times in the evening supply hours)

    In case water supply comes at any other timings and there is a minimum flow, still the flow switch will take on and fill up your tank.

    Please Help

    ReplyDelete
  26. Hello Swatagam
    I am Mehmet from Turkey.
    I read this post and it is really helpful. Thank you very much for sahering and helping(to other friends).
    I am 45yo and an amateur on electronic since 30 years.
    I am interested in this circuit, but the problem is ; I am going to build a country house(a farm house) very soon on field and there is NO AC electricity source around. I am planning to use 12 V sun power panels and wind turbine.
    would you revise this circuit for 12 V dc( NO AC use)
    Thank you

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hello Mehmet,

      I have updated the required diagram, you may check it out.

      Delete
  27. Dear Swagatam,

    Here are the snaps of the finished project:

    http://www.use.com/CD_4060_based_timer_9be8549fa77bb7793263

    I am extremely sorry for missing out on this.

    Regards,
    Raj

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thank you very much Raj,

      Great pics! I'll update them all in this article soon.

      Delete
  28. Dear sir,
    Thanks for the excellent circuit. One of my requirement is met. I have another requirement as to switch off automatically when the water level goes below the certain threshold in the sump. This is to avoid dry run of motor. Do you have any idea. please share.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks you!

      you can try the following circuit for your application:

      http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2012/09/simple-water-level-controller-circuit.html

      Delete
  29. Thanks Swagatam. My requirement is when the water level goes below B and C, then pump to be switched off ( reverse way). Do you have any idea to do this.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. OK, then please try the following circuit:

      http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2011/12/how-to-make-simple-water-level.html

      in this circuit the motor will auto-start when the water level reaches the top level, and will shut off when the water level reaches the lowermost level in the tank.

      Delete
  30. Thanks again. Instead of NAND gates, can we use inverter. Any special requirements for usuage of NAND gate in your circuit.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. 4093 has 4 gates and fit perfectly with the application, therefore I preferred them.... NOT gates would also work as effectively, no issues.

      Delete
    2. Sir,
      Do you have any idea of how to sense dry run motor by checking at the overhead tank inlet without checking at the underground tank since it takes more work in getting the wire from underground to motor place. My requirement is motor should go off if no water is flowing at the tank inlet. Also motor should not off intially since it will take atleast 5 seconds to push the water at the tank inlet.

      Delete
    3. Please provide your entire requirement, because I have many similar circuits posted, so if i know your complete requirement i can refer you to any of those circuits with the required mods.

      Delete
  31. Thanks for the reply. My requirement is to switch off the motor when motor is not able to pump the water. This may be due to water level become less than certain threshold in the underground tank Or pump has malfunction. My preference is not linking any wire from the underground tank to the circuit. My preference would be sensing the water flow in the overhead tank inlet. Hope you understood my requirement.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. The underground threshold monitoring will require a probe to be placed inside the underground tank without this it won't be feasible to check it. Motor dry running can be prevented through external sensors, though.

      Delete
  32. Hi,
    Thanks for the feedback. The following link http://www.electronicsforu.com/electronicsforu/circuitarchives/view_article.asp?sno=221&article_type=1&id=366&tt=unhot
    has fitted a buzzer to indicate if water is not pumping on the overhead tank inlet. But this does not switch off the motor.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. You can replace the buzzer with a relay driver stage for controlling the motor, and how do you want to switch ON the motor, manually or automatically?...the circuit can be made a lot simpler.

      Delete
    2. Thanks for the feedback. I would like to switch on the motor manually. If we replace the buzzer with a relay, then motor will be switched off immediately upon switching on motor,since it will few seconds for water to flow on the tank inlet. We need to provide some time delay to sense the water flow at the tank inlet to avoid this problem. but I am not sure how to introduce a delay.Please help me on this.

      Delete
    3. You are right! I'll post it soon in a new article. I'll inform you when it's posted.

      Delete
    4. I have posted it here:

      http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2013/07/underground-water-pump-motor-dry-run.html

      Delete
  33. Hi,
    How do you decide transistors. For example in this circuit you decided for BC547 and QN222. How did you decide?.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. it's selected with respect to the load current requirement, sensitivity etc.

      Delete
  34. Hiii
    I am GAURAV SHETA. CAN I GET THIS READY CIRCUIT??

    ReplyDelete
  35. Hi swagatam,
    I tried the circuit. Instead of relay, I connected a LED. LED was turned on and off and on for certain duration which is fine.
    I measure voltage across secondary coil of transformer, meter indicates 11.2v AC. After 5 to 7 minutes of opertaion, capacitor (C3 - 1000uF/25v) was bursted. I am not sure what might be the reason. Do you have any idea to protect it.

    Thanks,
    Kannan.E

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Kannan,

      Any capcitor will burst only if it's rated below the supply voltage or connected with wrong polarity, otherwise there's absolutely no chance of it getting damaged.

      Delete
  36. Hi,
    You are right. I remember I connected cap with wrong polarity for some time and then connected with correct polarity.

    I have one query. After the push button is released, primary coil of the transformer will be disconnected from the source supply. In this case how IC 4060 is getting powered. please explain.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. When you press the push button, the power supply momentarily switches ON the whole circuit along with the relay, the relay contacts operate and replaces the push button and gets locked in that position, so now even if the button is released, the power to the circuit is sustained via the relay contacts until it breaks with elapsing of the set time.

      Delete
    2. Thanks. One more query I have is why you did not use rectifier to convert to 12v DC.

      Delete
    3. you mean bridge rectifier? it can be used here, I tried to keep it very simple and so opted a single diode.

      Delete
    4. Hi,
      We have two motors.I am just thinking whether is it possible to have one more momentry button switch to operate the second motor using the same circuit. Do you have any idea.

      Delete
    5. It won't be possible just by adding another switch, it might require many complex mods.

      making a separate unit appears to be a better and a safer idea.

      Delete
  37. Hi swagatam
    this circuit is good but i have another concept i want timer circuit for tap water line. Circuit controlled solenoidal valve for some time for first interval on and then after some time interval off the solenoidal valve and divert the line.

    ReplyDelete
  38. Hi swagatam
    This circuit is very interesting. i have another concept to operate tap water line. Circuit is design as per following condition,
    1) When water comes then for first 1 min it goes in one tank then solenoidal valve(V1) close & V2 open.
    2) When (V1) Closed then solenoidal valve (V2) open then goes forward in main tank.
    3) Tap water line cut then whole system reset that is V1 open & V2 close.
    4) next day tap water come then 1 to 3 step repeat.

    ReplyDelete
  39. so can made some changes above circuit for my concept

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Ashok,
      The circuit could be much complicated, cannot be modified from the above design.

      I'll see if can figure it out and inform you if it's possible.

      Delete
  40. sir iam an undergraduate student . can you explain me the concept behind it i.e. how it acts as a timer

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Ishersingh, you will have to refer to the 4060 IC functioning details to understand the above operations. just Google 4060 pinout function, you will find all the required details in the links.

      Delete
  41. Dear sir,
    Can i use a preset vertical as P1 in this circuit?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thank you sir. What about capacitor C2? Can i use a polar type capacitor of same value? Also, regarding the transistors T1 & T2, in parts list both T1 & T2 are different, but in one of your comments it is given that T1,T2 = BC547. Which transistors should be use as T1 &T2?

      Delete
    2. yes C2 can be a polar type.
      T1 can be a BC547 but if the relay resistance is below 100 ohms T2 must be a higher rated transistor such as a 8050, 2N2222, if the relay coil resistance is higher than 100 ohms a BC547 can be used.

      Delete
  42. hai...sir...
    could you plz reply to my mail ,sent to your hitman inbox ?? it is related to the current topic

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Deva, the explanation was too long and the diagram too elaborate so I could not study it due to time constraint, if you can pin-point exactly what you need I'll try to help

      Delete
  43. sir, in my diagram ( semi automatic water controller ) sent to your email, i need help in the 555 section which is given as the second figure in that mail... i will send you that section soon to your hitman inbox.... plz check it

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Arun, I have answered it, please check your email inbox....

      Delete
  44. thank you sir ... when the triggering terminals are connected directly togrther in accordance with your suggestion, the low water level alarm is getting shut off immediately ... but when these terminals are dipped in water, the result is same as before.... the alarm continues to work.

    what i have to do ?
    wht z the reason for this... 390 k was used to connect pin#4 to Vcc...
    I think this problem is due to high resistance path ( created by water ) which restricts the weak positive signal from pin#4 ( due to 390 K ) from going to ground...
    also the beep sound of the alarm is getting changed to continuous sound when these terminals are shorted using water

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Arun, in that case you can take the help of an additional transistor stage.

      Connect pin4 to positive via a 100k resistor.

      Take a BC547 transistor, connect its collector to pin4, emitter to ground and use its base with a parallel ground terminal as sensors for detecting the presence of water, this approach will surely provide you with the intended results.

      Delete
  45. Hi,
    I am kannan. I was using this circuit for the past one year. Twice it got failed due to transfore getting faulty. Tranformer failing after 6 months. Not sure why transformer is getting failed. Do you have any idea on how to make reliable 12 volts atleast for 2 years.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi, a transformer will never burn unless it's of very bad quality in terms of number of turns in the primary winding. the primary winding should have at least 2k resistance, anything lower than this would mean a compromised unit.

      alternatively you could go for a 12v/1amp smps adapter which are extremely common in the market nowadays.

      Delete

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Readers are advised to proceed with the construction of the presented circuits only after understanding the concepts from the core. Not adhering to this can lead to failures and frustrations.