Monday, September 17, 2012

Make a Battery Charger Circuit in 15 Minutes

I have posted many battery charger circuits in this site, some are easy to build but less efficient, while some are too sophisticated involving complex construction steps. The one posted here is possibly the easiset with its concept and also is extremely easy to build. In fact if you had all the required material you would build it within 15 minutes of time.
The concept is indeed hugely simple and therefore pretty crude with its going. This means that though this idea is too simple, would require appropriate monitoring of the charging conditions of the battery, so that it does not get over charged or damaged.
To make this simplest battery charger circuit quickly, you would require the following bill of materials:

  • One rectifier diode, 1N5402
  • An incandescent bulb, having voltage rating equal to the battery which needs to be charged and current rating close to 1/10th of the battery AH.
  • A transformer having voltage rating equal to twice that of the battery voltage and current twice the charging rate of the battery. That means if the battery is 12V, the transformer should be 24V, and if the AH of the battery is 7.5 then dividing this by 10 gives 750mA which becomes the recommended charging rate of the battery, multiplying this by 2 gives 1.5Amps, so this becomes the required current rating of the transformer.
After you have collected all the above material, you may simply connect the above parameters together with the help of the diagram.

The functioning of the circuit may be explained in the following manner:

When the power is switched ON, the 1N5402 diode rectifies the 24V DC to produce half wave 24V DC at the output.
Though the RMS value of this voltage may appear to be 12V, the peak voltage is still 24V, therefore it cannot be applied directly to the battery.

To blunt of this peak value, we introduce a bulb in series with the circuit. The bulb absorbs the high peak values of the voltage and provides a relatively controlled output to the battery, which becomes self regulatory through the glow of the filament intensity of the bulb (varying resistance).

The voltage and current thus automatically becomes adjusted to appropriate charging levels which becomes just suitable for the battery safe charging.

The charging of the battery can be witnessed by the gradual dimming of the bulb as the threshold charging voltage of the battery is reached.

However once the battery voltage reaches close to 14.5V, the charging must be stopped, irrespective of the bulb glow condition.



55 comments:

  1. I have built a simple charger using capacitors instead of a transformer.
    It is constant current and by switching in more capacitance the amperage can be raised.
    I would like to be able to automatically switch in or out 3 rates of charge.
    The thing that I need help with is the heavy arcing that the points will be subjected to and any other problems I may encounter.
    I like this charger because it has the ability to de-sulfate old batteries.


    Yours
    Carl

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Arcing takes place only when the voltage is too high, I don't think at voltages near 12 or 24 any arcing would take place..but switch-ON surge currents can be the worry....which can be eliminated by using MOVs or NTCs at the input of the circuit.

      Delete
  2. This charger runs directly on mains voltage (120v)
    The reason I posted on this page is this also is a very simple design.
    Bare bones all the parts required are 2 caps and a bridge rectifier.
    She makes quite a snap when I switch in more capacitance.
    I think the 60 cycle pulsing must be what does the de-sulfating.
    It seems to use whatever voltage it needs to push a very constant current.

    Carl

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. For avoiding the initial switch ON "snap" you can include one more switch in series with the output with the positive terminal which can be toggled after the mains swich ON.

      By the way the bridge will provide 120Hz to the battery.

      Delete
  3. Thanks Majumdar,

    Yes of course, 120Hz.

    Another good thing about this method is that it's twice as efficient as a transformer and no heat.(except for the bridge)

    Carl
    Love your blog

    ReplyDelete
  4. This charger is a mystery to me.

    I have no idea the theory behind it,
    but it works well and I'm going to attempt to add some of your enhancements to it.

    Every time I yell for help will be like an up-date for the blog. :-)

    Thanks
    Carl

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. You are welcome Carl!.....that was cool:-)

      Delete
  5. BTW Swagatam,

    How would I send you a drawing or photo of this thing?

    Carl

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Carl,
      you may upload it to www.imageshack.us and send me the link.

      Delete
  6. how can i know that the battery voltage has reached 14.5volts

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. attach a voltmeter at the battery terminals....

      Delete
  7. dear please send me auto cut off charging circuit diagram for emergency light LEDs.
    i have (3.7volt 1 watt 270ma LED)+ 4 volt 800ma battry,
    my email id is (nicetahir2020@gmail.com) i shall be very thank full to you.

    regards,

    Tahir

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I will try to do it soon and post it in this blog.

      Delete
    2. dear still waiting???

      tahir.

      Delete
    3. I have one similar circuit posted in the following link, check out the second diagram, it can be suitably modified:

      http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2012/08/led-emergency-light-circuit-with.html

      Delete
  8. Hello Sir,
    What type of battery charger u r discussing with mr carl carbeau in above discussion.
    I had also read some where to make battery charger by simple ac run capacitor and by diode bridge.is it fisiable and safe to charge high ah rating battery with this charger.i had also read that it also helps in desulphating the battery as u where also discussed above.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Yes it can be done, but the whole wiring becomes risky and the terminals of the battery float at the mains potential, the whole thing becomes very dangerous to touch.

      Delete
  9. Thanks for ur reply sir,
    Will u give me some idea of components i had to use for 12v 9.4ah amp battery. actually i want to desulphate this baterry.
    And how would i know that my battery is charged
    Thanks

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. If you are referring to the above circuit then you may try a 24V/5amp transformer and a 12V automotive headlamp.

      Keep an ammeter connected in series with the supply, it should indicate gradual increase in the current consumption, and subsequently a gradual decrease in consumption, until zero.

      Delete
  10. Thanks sir,
    Will ur above circuit is able to desulphate batteries
    Can i use 12-0-12 trafo by connecting 12-12 tap together

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I am not sure, but since it generates pulsed DC at 50Hz can be tried for the purpose.

      Delete
    2. And can i use 12-12 tap together to get 24v from 12-0-12 trafo

      Delete
    3. hello sir,
      can u please teach me how to use 12-0-12 transformer to get 0-24 for above circuit.
      will i have to connect 12-12 tap directly for 24
      or via diodes
      ->can a bridge "D25SBA80" should be used as bridge rectifire in a 150ah battery charging circuit.as it is rated to handle 25 amp current according to its datasheet.(not related to above circuit)

      Delete
    4. hello avijeet,

      for the above circuit you will need only one diode as shown and you can connect 12-12 tap for getting 24V.

      yes a 25amp diode bridge can be used for 150ah battery charging.

      Delete
  11. hello sir, Can i used a 1.5v battery if so how i will make it?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. no, this circuit is not applicable for small batteries.

      Delete
  12. hello sir,
    How can i charge a battery with a 4v that i used with my phone?
    please sir guide me
    because iam only 14 yrs.
    my experience is not enough.

    ReplyDelete
  13. hello sir,
    How can i charge a phone battery with 4v?
    pls sir guide me
    iam only 14 yrs my experience is not enough

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. connect the 4V source directly with your phone battery (3.7V) and remove it as soon as the phone battery reaches 4V.

      the source current supply must not be more than the cell phone battery AH rating.

      Delete
  14. Hello sir,
    I ant to design a charger which can charge batteries at 10 times of rated current, for quick charging...
    pls suggest some info about it.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hello Pooran,

      It will damage and destroy the battery, so it's not recommended.

      Delete
  15. hi sir
    i gopal malviya and i want to make multi charger 1.5 volt to 24 volt 5 ah to 180 ah , sir how it's possible and how to make this
    please suggest me and may you explain detail about this project..

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hello Gopal,

      Presently I do not have a multi-charger circuit for 180AH battery, I'll try to design it if possible, and let you know.

      Delete
  16. Dear Sir,

    How to read this design. Is it like the current first comes to transformer then diode then bulb and then battery? Can I use this same way to charge a battery through power produced by mini wind turbine?

    Thank you,

    Rahul

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Dear Rahul,
      yes you can read it in that way.

      With a wind generator you would need a voltage regulator circuit also because the supply from a wind generator could vary a lot.

      Delete
  17. how can i make a battery charger?with the help of this b.c.how can i charge different types of battery like cellphones battery or cars battery?can it possible?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. this circuit cannot be used for charging all types of batteries, for cel phone batteries you will need more complex designed as already explaimed in many of the posts in this blog

      Delete
  18. Sir.. Where can i find rectifier diode 1N5402. Can i find that in an old appliances?

    ReplyDelete
  19. Sir.. Can i use another diode if i have not that one? And what diode can i use?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. John, you can get it from any 3amp/5amp power supply box or a power amplifier circuit etc.

      you can also try making it by putting two or three 1N4007 diodes in parallel.

      Delete
  20. Welldone sir,
    I want to make this but i have some question.
    1. Can i use this circuit to charge an sla battery 12v, 7.2ah?
    2. Is the circuit safe for charging battery? And how long will it take to charge d above battery fully?
    3. Can the output be fully rectified and filtered for pure dc?
    4. What adjustment can be made to give more quality ? Thanks

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. thanks Madamidola,

      the circuit is safe but crude so will need to be switched off as soon as the 14.4V mark is reached.

      yes the given specs are for charging a 12V battery

      if you intend to rectify the the transformer output with a bridge network, do not use a 24V trafo, rather use a 12V trafo and a12V automotive bulb

      for more quality, you may include an opamp based cut-off satge, use lm338 stage for regulation, use heat sensors etc.

      Delete
    2. ...back up time is 10 hours with a 1amp trafo for a 7ah battery

      Delete
    3. sorry it's not back up time, it should be charging time in the above comment....

      Delete
  21. Thanks sir.
    Can i use 12v 500milliamp transformer to charge the battery

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. with a 12V/500ma, use a bridge rectifier, a 2200uF/25V filter cap and simply connect the output directly to the battery, wait for 15 hours and you'll find the battery reasonably charged.

      Delete
  22. Pardon sir.
    I have a 3 anodes 12v, 1.5amps, how can I use it to charge a 12v, 7.2ah battery?
    How long will it take for full charge

    ReplyDelete
  23. Replies
    1. use center tap and one of the outer taps, connect these with a bridge network, filter the bridge output with a 2200uF/25V cap and connect it with your battery, wait for 10 hours.

      Delete
  24. Sir the output voltage is just 10.2v
    Can I still use it

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. you have used a bridge, or a single diode???

      Delete

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Readers are advised to proceed with the construction of the presented circuits only after understanding the concepts from the core. Not adhering to this can lead to failures and frustrations.