Saturday, April 13, 2013

Simple Solar MPPT Circuit Using IC555 - PWM Maximum Power Point Tracker

A simple yet effective solar panel MPPT charger circuit can be built using a couple of 555 ICs and a few other linear components. Let's learn the procedures.

An MPPT or Maximum Power Point Tracker for solar panels is a method which enables deriving maximum available current from a solar panel throughout the day without disturbing its specified voltage, thus allowing greatest efficiency from the panel.

As we all know, acquiring highest efficiency from any form of power supply becomes feasible if the procedure doesn't involve shunting the power supply voltage, meaning we want to acquire the particular required lower level of voltage, and maximum current for the load which is being operated without disturbing the source voltage level, and without generating  heat.

Briefly, a concerned MPPT should allow its output with maximum required current, any lower level of required voltage yet making sure the voltage level across the panel stays unaffected.

One method which is discussed here involves PWM technique which may be considered one of the optimal methods to date.

We should be thankful to this little genius called the IC 555 which makes all difficult concepts look so easy.

In this concept too we incorporate, and heavily depend on a couple of IC 555s for implementing the MPPT effect.

Looking at the given solar mppt circuit using IC555 we see that the entire design is basically divided into two stages.

The upper voltage regulator stage and the lower PWM generator stage.

The upper stage consists of a p-channel mosfet which is positioned as a switch and responds to the applied PWM info at its gate.

The lower stage is a PWM generator stage. A couple of 555 ICs are configured for the proposed actions.

IC1 is responsible for producing the required square waves which is processed by the constant current triangle wave generator comprising T1 and the associated components.

This triangular wave is applied to IC2 for processing into the required PWMs.

However the PWM spacing from IC2 depends on the voltage level at its pin#5, which is derived from a resistive network across the panel via the 1K resistor and the 10K preset.

 The voltage between this network is directly proportional to the varying panel volts.

During peak voltages the PWMs become wider and vice versa.

The above PWMs are applied to the mosfet gate which conducts and provides the required voltage to the connected battery.

As discussed previously, during peak sunshine the panel generates higher level of voltage, higher voltage means IC2 generating wider PWMs, which in turn keeps the mosfe switched OFF for longer periods or switched ON for relatively shorter periods, corresponding to an average voltage value that might be just around 14.4V across the battery terminals.


When the sun shine deteriorates, the PWMs get proportionately narrowly spaced allowing the mosfet to conduct more so that the average current and voltage across the battery tends to remain at the optimal values.

The 10K preset should be adjusted for getting around 14.4V across the output terminals under bright sunshine.

The results may be monitored under different sun light conditions.

The proposed MPPT circuit ensures a stable charging of the battery, without affecting or shunting the panel voltage which also results in lower heat generation.

Note: The connected soar panel should be able to generate 50% more voltage than the connected battery at peak sunshine. The current should be 1/5th of the battery AH rating.





 Note: The input from the solar panel which connects with pin5 of IC2 must be fed via a BJT stage (wired as common collector), it should be done in the following manner.

Solar feedback input at pin5 of IC2 is disconnected and connected with the base of a BC547 transistor, collector of this transistor is connected with the supply pins of the ICs (pin4/8), while the emitter is joined with pin5 of IC2.

The above is necessary because pin5 of IC555 needs relatively more current to respond, and may not work satisfactorily if the input lacks sufficient current.




How to Set up the Circuit

It may be done in the following manner:

Initially keep S1 switched OFF.

Expose the panel to peak sunshine, and adjust the preset  to get the required optimal charging voltage across the mosfet drain diode output and ground.

The circuit is all set now.

Once this is done, switch ON S1, the battery will start getting charged in the MPPT mode.

Adding a Current Control Feature

A careful investigation of the above circuit shows that as the mosfet tries to compensate the falling panel voltage level, it allows the battery to draw more current from the panel, which affects the panel voltage dropping it further down inducing a run-away situation, this may be completely against the MPPT law.

A current control feature as shown in the following diagram takes care of this problem and prohibits the battery from drawing excessive current beyond the specified limits. This in turn helps to keep the panel voltage unaffected.

RX which is the current limiting resistor can be calculated with the help of the following formula:

RX = 0.6/I, where I is the specified minimum charging current for the connected battery


A crude but simpler version of the above explained design may be built as suggested by Mr. Dhyaksa using pin2 and pin6 threshold detection of the IC555, the entire diagram may be witnessed below:






You may also like to read the following:






191 comments:

  1. nice one, i will try to make it soon..
    MO

    ReplyDelete
  2. Sir please clear write with seprate parts
    for new ones

    ReplyDelete
  3. Could you please post the part list? Thanks.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. click the diagram to enlarge, all the part values are provided beside the relevant components

      Delete
    2. I indeed enlarged the diagram before I posted my question, but there are two diodes written 6A4x5 (I can't find a diode part number like that), D1 has a funny sign with a value 2V7 that part was also not found at any electronic store, and a part number for p-channel mosfet would have been helpful. Please rest assured, I would not have posted my question here if the enlarged diagram had clear part numbers.

      Delete
    3. 6A4 stands for 6amp diode, put 5 of them in parallel.

      D1 is a zener diode

      mosfet rating will depend on the battery rating, select as per the AH rating of the battery.... mosfet current may be 50% of battery AH rating, voltage should be at least twice that of the battery voltage.

      Delete
    4. Thanks. It has been a while since I visited this page and seems like you have updated the circuit by adding a 14V Zener parallel to 10n capacitor on the bottom right corner, if my memory is correct. I was wondering if this zener can be higher or lower than 14V or it has to be exactly 14V? I can't find 14V zener but they have either 12V or 18V. Thanks for your explanation.

      Delete
    5. Yes it's for clamping pin#5 of the IC at 14V so that the battery voltage is never fed with higher voltages than this value.

      you can use a 12V and a 3V zener in series to make it 15V. A 15V to the battery will not do any harm.

      Delete
  4. 875 va inverter and 150 ah battery iam using now how much watts panel and how many amps charger control unit can i get

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. A 400 watt panel would do the job, a 30 amp charge controller would be OK.

      Delete
  5. Could you please inform us how to calculate the maximum load current this MPPT can handle? Thank you.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. load handling capacity will depend solely on the ratings of the solar panel and the mosfet, dimension them as per your requirement.

      the current from the solar panel should be around 1/5th that of battery AH

      Delete
  6. mosfet will work without any driver circuit?

    ReplyDelete
  7. hi sir,
    whats the current in the above circuit?
    in the above circuit how can we regulate the current explain me once please
    how to increase the current in this circuit.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Seetha,

      The current will depend on the panel wattage which should selected as per the battery AH rating. The mosfet should also be selected appropriately for handing the specified charging current.

      Delete
  8. Hi Sir,
    I'm using 2 battery 200ah (24v) How to use this circuit for 24 volts.

    ReplyDelete
  9. Hi Swagatam,
    Is there a way you can add led indicators in the circuit for charging, charge complete and load indicators? Thanks.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Maya,

      that will require a separate circuit to be included, you may attach the following circuit to get the charging indicators in the above circuit:

      http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2011/12/how-to-make-simple-low-battery-voltage.html

      Delete
  10. Hi Sir,

    Thanks you for replying.

    how i use this circuit for 24V whats item i update. This circuit for 12V.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. The circuit will work for 24V battery also, but the panel should be rated at 30V

      Delete
  11. Hello sir, do p-channel mosfet requires any driver circuit and isolation?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hello Ninka,

      mosfets will need drivers only when they are configured in a bridge format or some other complex format, for single mosfets whether n or p a driver won't be required.

      Delete
  12. Hello Dear,

    48V 40Amp mppt Charge Controller Required please help.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hello Shiraz,

      you can use the above circuit for 48V/40amp applications also.

      Delete
  13. Hello Sir,

    Value not given a component after 6A4 X5. and whats a part i think they are transister, what is ?

    6A4-----------------------S(-I--I I-)-D------------6A4X5
    G

    ReplyDelete
  14. Hello Sir,
    Do this ciruit have overcharge protection of the battery,if not can you add bottery overcharge and low charge protection to this circuit.Can this circuit used as wind charge controller having input 60 to 100volt dc and 40 to 100 amps.pls give your email id.

    ReplyDelete
  15. Suppose instead of battery am connecting some load... say 12V cpu fan, LED light.... any load etc.. so battery is completely avoided. Will it track maximum power from solar panel as before ? If so, can i directely connect the DC supply to small inverter ?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. yes you can connect the output directly to an inverter.

      Delete
    2. Thank you for this... I am trying to power a resistive load (heat coil). Using the CREE-CMF20120D-N CH, SIC PWR MOSFET, 1200V, 33A . VOUT can vary greatly, simply to convert PV energy to heat.

      Any advice would be much appreciated.

      Delete
  16. Sir,
    Maximum input volt and amps for this circuit

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. there's no limit to it.....just modify the mosfet and the batt...rest everything remains unchanged

      Delete
    2. Sir Can i use 10watt or 20watt solar panel to this circuit? tnx and all resistor rated 1/4watt or 1/8 watt? tnx

      Delete
    3. yes, but actualy it should be selected as per the battery AH rating...all resistors are 1/4 watt cfr

      Delete
    4. tnx for the reply sir im interested of building it.. now im collectiong all parts, im using only
      12v 12ah lead acid battery.. but sooner i will upgrade it and my pv, im just wonder down with the bc557 transistor 1ma is it a diode? tnx

      Delete
    5. OK great!

      the symbol is just an arrow mark, nothing serious.

      Delete
  17. all components are collected ready to assemble, by the way sir is it ok my diode is rated 6A10? bec is not available in the elec. shop, is it the same with 6A4? and my c3 is 1uf 16v ...and also how much the drop voltage of this circuit sir? tnx

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. 6A10 is OK.
      1uF/16 will do.

      the circuit will not drop any voltage.

      Delete
  18. I've almost done with the circuit sir... im excited to try the circuit...i have some question bec. im too curious, what voltage level will stop charging when the battery is full? or what voltage the battery will start to charge?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. the circuit does not include an automatic cut off feature, you will have to switch it off manually when the battery voltage reaches 14.4V

      Delete
  19. ive already finish the circuit sir :) and i will test.. it sir.. i have a simple charger that i make using a relay it will automatically trigger when the battery is full.., can i add this to the circuit sir? or any suggestion? tnx :)

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. yes you may add the external control circuit to the above circuit.

      Delete
  20. tnx sir... i set to 14.5 volt and the external is 13.7 is it ok the adjustment sir.. can i get the same out put when i add the external circuit can i get mppt?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. what did you set to 14.5??

      the above circuit should be set at 14.4V and the external circuit must be also set at 14.4V, both should be identical.

      Delete
  21. ah ok sir i mean 14.4, now i understand sir tnx i will test now the circuit.. god bless more power

    ReplyDelete
  22. in capacitor 1uf is it polarized a ceramic cap.?

    ReplyDelete
  23. what will happen when the this controller set to 16v or 17v?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. the average voltage at the output of the mosfet should be around 15V, and varying the pot should enable 0 to max adjustment, if this is not happening means your circuit is faulty or some issue might be there.

      Delete
    2. ...first make the pot work to produce 0 to max voltage at the mosfet output, after that we can discuss how to proceed to the next step..

      Delete
  24. ok sir i will recheck the circuit

    ReplyDelete
  25. when i adjust the pot i noticed that it is very slow to drop the voltage when im in testing... how ever my shunt is set to 14.6v it is fine that i adjust the mppt circuit to 14.6 what will happen? or i will still set it to 14.4?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. if you are using a shunt regulator then the above circuit becomes meaningless.

      the above circuit should be used directly with the soar panel and the solar panel voltage shouldn't be less than 20V.

      the above circuit will require an input of 20V to function correctly.

      Delete
  26. i can now set the voltage to 0 in the output of mosfet..

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. OK, now you can proceed as mentioned in the above comment

      Delete
  27. OK you mean i could not used this circuit? bec. im only using solar 10w open voltage 20v? i mean a linear regulator im using... but you said i can add a controller to the above circuit? what do you mean sir? tnx

    ReplyDelete
  28. what is the minimum rating for this circuit sir? so that i can udjust,, bec now im only using 10w that can charge 12volt battery..

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. In your previous comment you mentioned "my shunt is set to 14.6v" I assumed it to be an external regulator....could not actually understand what you meant by it.

      The above circuit is a controller by itself, you just have to feed 20V to the circuit, and do the settings as suggested in the article, that's all.

      Delete
  29. yes sir it is an external so i dont need the regulator.. when the battery is full the circuit it self will float charge? tnx for reply sir.. im just too curious to the circuit and excited to use it

    ReplyDelete
  30. sir i will adjust the circuit to the output of the fet? or in the output of diode? without the load tnx

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. The above is a simple PWM controller which will reduce it's output voltage proportionately in response to a rising input voltage, so in case the solar voltage rises, the output voltage will get controlled proportionately without generating any heat.

      Adjust the output after the diode, refer to the explained setting procedure.

      Delete
    2. now i understand sir.. so it is ok to top up the circuit no need to worry about over charging.. :) im only too excited

      Delete
  31. i put an external regulator so that whenever the battery gets fully charge it will dump the excess.. so that when im away or im not in my house it will be manage.. is it ok sir? i will not change the output voltage of the mppt it will remain 14.4

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. dumping doesn't mean the battery will stop charging, it will keep on charging.

      It will only regulate the voltage to 14.4V, it will not cut off the supply, just as my circuit.

      you will have to employ a IC741 stage for over charge protection.

      if you already have a shunt regulator no need to connect the above circuit, because both are identical.

      Delete
  32. ok i will need the lm741 for the over charge protection,, do you have that circuit sir? tnx sir i will use ur circuit

    ReplyDelete
  33. my concern sir is it ok to put the circuit as a permanent to battery, i mean i will not disconnect it to the solar panel all throughout day and night

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. you can try the last circuit given in the following link:

      http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2012/11/making-40-watt-led-emergency-tubelight.html

      remove the lower relay and its connections entirely, its not required, and replace the SMPS input supply with the regulator output supply.

      meaning, the solar voltage should be first regulated using any of the regulators as discussed, and then the regulator output should be connected with this circuit.

      Delete
    2. ok sir tnk u.. i make the circuit.. the n/o of the 1st relay will be still open and then i get the negative trought to zener diode tnx

      Delete
    3. good day sir :) what is the calibration of the pot 10k and 100k?.. tnx

      Delete
    4. yes it may be kept open or connected to a load, as you wish...

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    5. .....for calibration details you may refer to the last circuit explained in the following article:

      http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2011/12/how-to-make-simple-low-battery-voltage.html

      Delete
  34. sir i dont have a variable power supply how can i udjust the 100k pot without the need of variable supply tnx

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. you will require a variable power supply for this, or make one as given in this link:

      http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2012/08/simplest-dc-cell-phone-charger-circuit.html

      change the 220 ohm resistor to 1k 1 watt and replace the zener with a 4.7k pot, when you adjust the pot the output voltage will also change, use the output for feeding your circuit and for setting the high low thresholds.

      Delete
  35. Hi sir, good work!
    How about implementing this cirquit to the charger?
    http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.fi/2013/03/automatic-lead-acid-battery-charger.html
    Would that work for regulation?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks,

      yes it can be tried, the above circuit will then become equipped with an auto cut off feature.

      Delete
  36. in the picture above the capacitor is missing...or i just cant see it... the controller works well tnx sir

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. which capacitor?

      great to know that it worked for you...

      Delete
    2. 50 volt cap parallel in battery

      Delete
    3. I removed it from the diagram, because it was not a correct thing .

      Delete
    4. hello Jeffrey could u kindly tell us how your project work does it allow the panels to work at a better wattage than if they were conected through a shunt controller. Please help us here and help Mr Swagatam to continue the great work

      Delete
    5. yes the above circuit is definitely much efficient than a shunt type controller circuit.

      Delete
  37. Hello Mr Swagatam does this controler increase the current of the panel like the comercial mppt controler anxiously waiting for your reply. Thank you

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I have just tried to imitate the actual version through a simpler concept, I have not tested the results so cannot confirm regarding its efficiency.

      Delete
    2. THANK YOU FOR YOUR USUAL QUICK SUPPORT .dO U THINK A BUCK CONVERTER AFTER THE FET WOULD HELP IN THIS ASPEC THAT IS ADDING A COIL AND FAST SWITCHING DIODE. i REALLY WANT TO GIVE IT A TRY. i HAVE BUILT SOME OF YOUR PROJECTS AND THEY WORK NICELY KEEP UP THE GOOD WORK. AWAITING UR REPLY

      Delete
    3. Thank you very much, yes it is definitely possible to convert the above design into a buck-boost kind of circuit.

      you can refer to the following post to get a hint regarding the changes that needs to be done.

      http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2013/06/universal-ic-555-buck-boost-circuit.html

      Delete
    4. thank u Mr Swagatam I will check the link we really appreciate ur support

      Delete
    5. hello Mr Swagatm i am really interested in this mppt controller circuit I want to try it at 48v but what would i use for the 14 zener diode because the voltage from the pannels would be about 80 or so volts. Thank u

      Delete
    6. please Mr Swagatam u said the network resstors are 10k and 22k but in the drawing it is 1k and 10 k please make it cllear here thank u Sir I also looked at the buckboost circuit u designed I was wondering if u incorporate this in the stage between the fet and diode if this would work and increASE the current also. Please look into this . Thank u

      Delete
    7. try using an online potential divider calculator and find the values of the resistor/pot which determine the potential at pin5 of IC2. This adjustments should be equal to the charging voltage 14.4V at optimal sun light that is 80V, once this is adjusted the zener can be kept as given.

      Delete
    8. yes surely the buck boost stage can be inserted after the mosfet in the above diagram. The current output simply depends on the mosfet and the solar panel rating

      Delete
    9. thank u Mr Swagatam for ue reply on the divider but I was trying to say I am charging a 48v battery bank so if i would still use a 14v zener . My panel volts is about 80v coming in awaiting ur reply

      Delete
    10. I think you have made a valid point, in your case that is for inputs and outputs greater than 15V the iC supply must be protected with a resistor/zener network.

      The 14V zener should be included as shown, however the reset/supply pins4/8 should be connected via a 10K resistor and clamped with a 15V zener.

      After this you would be able to continue with the procedures as explained in the article.

      Delete
    11. ok Mr Swagatam thank u I will get the parts together and try this circuit. I will let everone know how it works.

      Delete
  38. the PWM spacing from IC2 depends on the voltage level at its pin#5, which is derived from a resistive network across the panel via the 22K resistor and the 10K preset.

    but i dont see a 22k resister.instead a 1k resister is seen.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I have changed it to 1K which is the correct value, I'll do the necessary correction in the article.

      Thanks.

      Delete
  39. Hi Swagtam, nice circuit !! I just wanted to ask if it was possible to insert a visual monitor of what's happening on this circuit during operation, (LED or LCD) , if yes how and where on this circuit should that be inserted? Thank you

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Marika,

      A couple of LED voltage indicators can be made using LM3915 IC, one can be set for measuring the panel voltage while the other the pin#3 voltage of IC2.

      The displays would then clearly indicate the tracking procedures comparing the response of the two inputs.

      Delete
    2. Hi Swagatam,
      I built this controller and can see the pluses at the gate of the fet. When I adjust the preset I see the voltage changing at pin 5 of IC2 but not at mosfet drain diode output

      Thanks

      Delete
    3. Dear Swagtam, I have built the circuit including the LM3915 IC, but I'm stuck on the type of MOSFET , here's what I have available for use : a solar panel 150W/12V and a 65AH/12V battery (that I will upgrade to 100AH soon) , what is your advice on the mosfet ? will an IRF540 work? Thanks.

      Delete
    4. Dear Marika, the mosfet should be a p-channel not an N-channel, you can try irf9540.
      I would recommend you to build the following design instead of the above, it makes more sense:

      http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2013/06/universal-ic-555-buck-boost-circuit.html

      Delete
  40. Hi Swagatam,
    I built this controller and can see the pulses at the gate of the fet. When I adjust the preset the voltage at pin 5 of IC-2 changes but not at mosfet drain diode output.

    Thanks

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Check the voltage at pin#3 of IC2, it should change in accordance with the preset, if not would mean something's not correct within the IC1/IC2 stages.

      Delete
  41. hi sir, can we use n-channel mosfet which i have on hand?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Sonny,

      No, n-channel will not do, you will have to use a p-channel.

      Delete
  42. Hello Mr Swagatam I am trying to build this circuit . I want to know at what frequency this circuit operates and which parts of the circuit deal with the frequency settings and which ic deals with the pulse width pulse . Thank u

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Alex,
      The frequency is not critical, although it is determined by R1/C1.

      IC2 is responsible for the PWMs, I have explained everything in the article.

      Delete
    2. thank you mr Swagatam for your support

      Delete
    3. Hello Mr Swagatam I built the circuit but I am having some problems with it . Should I be able to adjust the output voltage from 0 to the maximum panel voltAGE. If so I have 40 v coming in from the panel to charge a 24v bank but when I adjust I get from 0 to 22v only could u tell me where I could check for possible causes.

      Delete
    4. Hello Alex,

      Since the mosfet conduction depends on the duty cycle from the IC, means the mosfet output should become adjustable right from zero to max panel voltage, or almost near to max.

      However the 22V would have damaged the ICs in your case, because the ICs won't tolerate more than 18V.

      I would suggest you to replace the ICs and connect a 7812 with the new ICs for protecting them from the high voltage....and then check afresh.

      Delete
    5. Hello Mr. Swagatam I want to modify this controller to handle 60 amps. If I parellel three IRF9540n and diodes would this work or do you recomend a different mosfet and diode arrangement

      Delete
    6. hello Mr Swagatam thank u for ur usual quick support. I have a regulator already in the circuit for the ic thats ok but I was just wondering I am not able to adjust to maximum voltage could this be the fet I am using because the maximum 40v is at the source of the fet but not at the drain could this be my devider not right for the 40v panel voltage.. Thanks for ur support

      Delete
    7. Hello winston,

      Your idea would also work, just make sure to connect 0.22 ohm 1 watt resistors in series with the source of each mosfet and also include separate gate resistors for them.

      Delete
    8. Hello Alex,

      Please refer to the following snippet, the PWM at pin#3 of IC2 controls the mosfet output, so according to me the output must vary from zero to max:

      http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-G-E1CvLaU4U/UOfhAH6C0ZI/AAAAAAAACas/nsaEsevlY6k/s1600/reverse+forward+dc+motor+speed+controller+circuit.jpg

      Delete
    9. Thanks Mr.Swagatam,
      I will try this modification,but the wattage of the resistors in series with the source ( 1 watt) seems low if each mosfet is to handle 20 amps.

      Delete
  43. Good day Mr. Swagatam.

    I am am currently building your circuit to charge a 12V, 31Ah deep cycle battery via a 80W, 21.8V polycrystalline panel.

    According to the battery specifications the recommended charge current should not exceed 7A max, and the panel can supply around 5A in peak conditions. I was just wondering if the 5x6A diodes will not be overkill for my configuration, I am also using an IRF9540n mosfet able to drain -23A@-10V. Any other suggestions will be appreciated.

    Thank you very much

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Good Day Christiaan,

      The diodes would be in parallel theerfore would drop just 0.6V, you can remove them if you want as they are only placed to safeguard accidental reverse polarity connections. The diode at the mosfet drain may also be removed.

      The mosfet is fine, it's capable of handling -23A @ -100V to be precise.

      Delete
    2. Thank you very much sir, I thought the diodes was solely for reverse polarity protection, I didn't realize the paralleling results in a much needed lower voltage drop than adding only a single diode -basics! Yes that is -23A @ -100V for the mosfet sorry.

      Thanks for your reply

      Delete
    3. You are welcome!

      Actually a rectifier diode will drop 0.6 volts doesn't matter whether a single is in the line or many in parallel, but will add up if they are in series.

      Delete
  44. Hello Mr. Swagatam! You've been doing a great job by helping the electronics hobbyists. Please I have massive interest in this circuit, but i like to ask if a heatsink should be placed on the mosfet.
    Thank you sir.

    ReplyDelete
  45. Thank u Mr Swagatamfor ur refrence to the motor driver circuit. i will use a different fet and see the results and let u know because this is the best described mppt controler I see that looks pratical. Thanks for ur support

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks Alex,
      Actually the above circuit is an MPPT simulator not exactly an MPPT because it does not track the IV curve of the panel...you can say it's kind of a solar panel optimizer.

      Delete
    2. I am trying to understand your explanation here about a mppt simulator.So the devider network does not work as a data colletor to tell the circuit what to do.Could u explain more clearer.Than u Sir

      Delete
    3. The potential divider only provides the dropping voltage information to the circuit and forces the circuit to compensate it by raising the mosfet conduction and its output RMS, it has no provision to track the IV curve of the panel.

      Just now I posted one circuit where I have tried to implement a I/V tracker concept, you may refer to the design here:

      http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2013/09/iv-tracker-circuit-for-solar-mppt.html

      Delete
    4. thank u Mr Swagatam I am folowing all ur post on mppt controllers becaue I want to build a working one. I changed my fet and used the irf9540 I am getting the maximum panel volt out now at the output of the diode but the problem is when I adjust the pot the voltage does not vary. It varies the voltage at the gate of the fet yes but not at the output could u help me here. Thank u.Now I see ur new circuit I dont know which one to build ???? sir

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    5. It can be a little tricky, you will have to check, and set by comparing the input voltage, the voltage at pin#5 and the drain voltage through some trial and error. Check how the drain voltage responds to the other two voltages and then try to figure out the most optimal relation between these three such that when the panel voltages dips, the drain voltage rises (opposite response)

      Delete
    6. Mr Swagatam I am having problem with this circuit and I see some other guy is having the same problem . The voltage at the output drain of the fet is not changing with the setting of the pot. even if u disconect the gate of the fet the voltage is there passing from the panels. Please recheck to see if something is wrong somewhere. The voltage at pin 5 change as u say it should and the frequency is somewhere in the hz so i think the two ics are working correctly but the controling of the voltage at he output not able to be adjusted. Please help us here this guy posted his coment on the 28 of august. Thank u for ur help

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    7. Mr Alex, I am always helpful to the readers here, but it's the responsibility of the readers also that they understand the presented concept from the core and only then proceed with the construction, because otherwise it would become very difficult for them to troubleshoot even with my help.

      Anyway, in the above circuit the response of the mosfet will be opposite to the response at pin#5 or at pin#3 of the IC2, meaning as the voltage drops, the conduction at the drain of the mosfet would increase.

      You are saying that even if you disconnect the gate, the mosfet conducts.... it simply suggests that your mosfet may be faulty, do one thing use a TIP127 transistor in place of mosfet and check, because transistors are easier to handle than mosfets.

      Apply an equivalent solar peak voltage and adjust the preset to produce about 15V at the collector of TIP127, now as you reduce the input voltage, the collector voltage should try to compensate by maintaining its collector voltage to around 14/15V.

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    8. .....the voltage at pin#3 of IC2 should also change in response to the preset adjustments.

      Delete
    9. Thank u Mr Swagatam for your usual support . I will try as u say and let u know the result because we all want this circuit to work

      Delete
  46. can we see a photograph of the final design (next to something to see scale)?

    ReplyDelete
  47. Hi Mr. Swagatam, if I were to use this circuit for a very low voltage (3.8V, Imp: 800mA) solar panel. How do I change the resistors and capacitors values?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I am afraid it won't work at that voltage because the IC555 needs a minimum 4.5V to operate.

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    2. Will it work at 9v? And is there any transistors to replace the mosfet?

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    3. yes it will work..... you can use TIP127 in place of the mosfet.

      Delete
  48. What a good circuit design, Swagatam. But I'm really sorry to say that I thing the above circuit is not MPPT charge controller, It's PWM.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Yes, the above circuit does not track the I/V of the panel so in true sense it's not an MPPT, rather it's a solar panel optimizer circuit, I'll try to update the above with an I/V tracker system soon, so that it justifies its name.

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    2. hello Mr Swagatam we look forward for u designing a more efficient mppt controler as u discuss one that uses smps and transformer thank u

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    3. yes definitely i'll try to do it, as soon as i figure out the trafo designing details of the smps

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    4. Thank u we look forwards to that sir soon

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  49. Dear Sir,
    thank you very much for your support for us.. we are looking forward for your simple mppt controller with I/V tracker system.. thank you very much sir

    ReplyDelete
  50. Hi sir, what is the purpose of connecting so many diodes in parallel?

    ReplyDelete
  51. Hello sir me Bhanu ..... can you please tell me the specification of Mosfet used in MPPT solar charger circuit..
    Thank you sir.....

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hello Bhanu,

      You can use IRF9540 for the mosfet

      Delete
  52. Once again without inductor, it aint mppt.

    ReplyDelete
  53. Hello sir... i have already assembled the elements of solar MPPT charger but i cant understand the rating of the diode 6A4 ×5..... please sir help me....

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hello Bhanu,
      Those are 5nos of 6 amp diodes in parallel

      Delete
  54. Thank u sir ....i have still having some problem in solar MPPT charger...
    1)sir the 1uf ceramic capacitor is not available but 1uf 400v ceramic is available can i use this here.
    2)There is a formula used (0.6×RX) it is for resistance calculation but sir why 0.6 is used.
    3) I got a zenor diode of 14v but there is a color code in it is it a zenor or not???... the color code is 1st band is yellow & 2nd band is brown....
    4)Here 20v solar panel is used but i want to connect 12v solar panel for charging the battery of 12v 7Ah... it is a UPS battery....sir can it be possible
    Please sir help me ....Thanks..

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. 1) yes 1uF/400v can be used.
      2) 0.6 is the trasistors minimum biasing voltage
      3) I'm not sure about the color codes, you'll may take the help of any online zener color code chart.
      4) a 12V source will never charge a 12V batt...you will need at least 14 to 15V for charging a 12V batt.

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  55. Thank u sir for helping me ...i am planing to connect a 12v DC to 24DC converter for charging the battery of 12v 7.5ah. Sir is it possible...
    First i will connect 12v solar panel to converter circuit then the output will be 24v , again this 24v i will connect it to battery of 12v.... sir is it possible
    Thank u sir...me bhanu

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Bhanu, you can use a 12V to 15V converter and connect the output to the 12V battery, that would be better.

      Delete
  56. 3) You have given a formula for calculating resistance value that is 0.6/charging current ,, in the place of charging current can i use this formula to get the the resistance value easily i.e 1/10th of battery Ah value. the battery is 7Ah so 7/10=0.07ohm then 0.07*1000=70 kohm is this correct formula...
    4)Sir i am previously i have about color code of 14v zenor diode,, according to your suggestion i have searched online but i could not get a satisfied answer so can i use 15v zenor in place of 14v zenor
    Thank u sir....me "bhanu"

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. 0.6 divided by 7/10 = 0.6/0.7 = 0.85 ohms

      yes 15V will also work

      Delete
  57. Yes sir thanks .... me bhanu
    1) but sir got a good circuit from your site it is used for charging battery form solar panel where LM338 or LM317 is used link is (http://homemadecircuitsandschematics).
    From this circuit i can get a variable DC supply which will be helpful for me... is it be possible for me....
    2) First i will generate 24 volt from LM338 & then this 24v i will connect to the input of solar MPPT charger for getting required voltage for charging battery....is it possible....

    3) You have given a formula for calculating resistance value that is 0.6/charging current ,, in the place of charging current can i use this formula to get the the resistance value easily i.e 1/10th of battery Ah value. the battery is 7Ah so 7/10=0.7 Amp then 0.6/0.7= 0.857 Ohm 0.857*1000= 857 kohmbut is this correct formula...or I will use simply 0.6/battery Ah
    4)Sir i am previously i have about color code of 14v zenor diode,, according to your suggestion i have searched online but i could not get a satisfied answer so can i use 15v zenor in place of 14v zenor
    I am doing this in my project i have assembled all the components have some doubt ...Thank u sir...

    ReplyDelete
  58. Sir
    We use N Chanel MOS FET in this circuit. Pleas help me

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. for using an N-chanel, use a BC547 at pin3 of IC2 in order to invert the PWMs.

      connect its base to pin3 via a 10k resistor.
      collector to positive via a 1k resistor.
      emitter to ground
      connect the mosfet gate directly to the collector of the BC547.
      the drain will go to the solar panel, while the source to the battery.

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    2. Sir Swagatam,

      where would be the connection of the BC547? before or after the 1K resistor?

      Thanks

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    3. Oliver, remove 1k and the diode and do as per the above instructions...

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    4. can i test this circuit with a variable power supply?

      Delete
  59. Sir
    What changes would be required to use this circuit to charge a large 4V battery? What is the maximum amps that the circuit can handle?

    Thank you

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. amps handling capacity is solely dependent on the mosfet...no other component is involved with amps and load.
      so it's all about modifying the mosfet as per the required output specs

      Delete
  60. Sir me bhanu
    1)Sir why 2.7v zenor is connected to base of the transistor and again why the transistor is used there. I know that pin 7 is discharge pin why the transistor is used in IC2 only.
    2)why sir the transistor is used between mosfet and the diode of solar panel..
    3)Why the 14v zenor is used in the output of pin5 only in IC2.
    4)What are the functions of ceramic capacitor in the circuit…….
    Please sir help me ‘’Thank you’’

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. BC557 and 2.7v zener are for current limiting so that the 555 pwms do not falter during voltage fluctuations.
      pin5 zener is for restricting the voltage within the 555 supply voltage otherwise the pwms will get clipped.

      capacitors are for determining relevant frequencies.

      Delete
  61. Hello sir,
    Please tell me the changes needed in this circuit to charge a 48v battery ( 2x24v Batteries connected0. What will be the specification of solar panel for the new circuit?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hello Akshay, the basic design will not change, only the 7812 will need to be replaced with an ordinary 22K resistor/zener diode network in order to supply the ICs with the required safe operating voltage....the zener could be a 12V zener diode

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    2. .....a 60 to 80Vsolar panel will do the job

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  62. Great job, yet again. SO I hven't been able to build your inverter from the other circuit because these transformers aren't popular in my area still looking though. But I went and got a 500 watt inverter for $20 works well, i power everything, downside it's modified sinewave so my sensitive appliances hum :( so I don't use it on them just incase.

    my question for this circuit is the wiring, if the tracks are joining to another track is that what the big black joins are for and some tracks have gaps to indicate not touching passing tracks but the tracks that pass and dont have the big black dots are they still joining when they crossover another track? like the 2 IC555 and the 4 capacitors see that track that just comes straight through them to the zener diode. also what voltage are the 4 capacitors?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Yes in the diagram enclosed above, the lower section indicates the black dots as the joints while the plain intersection as "not connected" meaning only the intersections that have black dots are joint other are NOT.

      In the upper section, the "not connected" intersections are simply shown as broken line intersections.

      As a rule of thumb capacitors should have a voltage rating that may be twice of the supply voltage, if it's greater there's no harm.

      Delete
  63. Hi
    Mr Majumdar I want to discuss about mppt charge controller in detail.Please contact me via mail .My id is rajeshsinghal06@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Rajesh, please contact me in the email...my email ID is hitman2008(at)live.in

      Delete
  64. Hi Mr.Swagatam, i want to ask you about that PWM like MPPT circuit. there is a 2.7V zener series with 470 Ohm after 12V regulator. is that make all of Vcc to be 2.7V or it's just for the IC1 (Wave generator) only? i'm afraid it can work as well. because the IC was running on 4v minimal i think. so thank you for your explanation.
    i want to make this one for my off grid 20Wp PV and 45AH 12V Battery.
    regard. Dhyaksa Hada.
    dhyaks@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Dhyaksa,

      It's only for BC557 base, and for IC2 pin7, the supply for the ICs is derived from the battery 12V.

      Delete
    2. okay i have tried to make this one yesterday, but i simulate the input from 16,5V Power Supply to 45AH Battery. but i think there is a malfunction on my circuit. now i try to make a simple one. just ordinary NE555 Fix frequency PWM and the Output from Pin 3 is drive a Gate mosfet (P-Mosfet) with series 100 Ohm resistor. try to turn it on, and it's charge the Battery. but i had my Mosfet and Blocking Diode was very HOT (like 70'C and up with my analog thermometer). how i can make the right one without any HOT devices?
      thanks a lot Mr.Swagatam.

      Delete
    3. which mosfet did you use? don't use a mosfet because mosfets are critical devices and require strict parameters....use a BJT instead...you can try a TIP122 but it may too require a large heatsink.

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    4. I use P-Channel MOSFET IRF-9540N for high switch... i don't know where is the problem. Ordinary NE555 that use 10k & 2.2nF for the Rt&Ct. Vin from Solar panel (I simulate it from Adj. Power Supply) 16.50V and Schottky diode + 100uF/25V Caps after Drain pin of Mosfet. or can you suggest me a simple one that completely working without any HOT mosfet? i'm very confuse with DC-DC Converter before. i have tried to built a lot but i still can't make it work well..

      thank for the advice Mr.Swagatam...

      Delete
    5. Dhyaska, I'll design the circuit as per your requirement and post it soon, and let you know, it will be similar to the above but a bit simpler.

      Delete
    6. oh thank you so much for your help to me. :) because in my region now was very unpredictable for the mains supply. i'm afraid that can make a lot of electricity doing malfunction (like notebook,refrigrator, etc.) once again thank you so much..
      you can notify me by email or social networking like FB with my email account.
      dhyaks@gmail.com

      thanks from Indonesia. :)

      Delete
    7. Mr. Swagatam, can you analyze my opinion circuit of the Charge Controller? just simple but i think that will work. but i need more analyzing about my circuit.
      this is the URL of my opinion circuit.

      https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B6YhcDN9vKrDeE1wejhUa2lhWm8/view?usp=sharing

      Delete
    8. Hello Dhyaksa, yes it seems it will work, you can carry on with this circuit in the meantime until I finish designing the proposed more sophisticated one.

      Delete
  65. The 555 supply derived from battery if battery is 11V the charger will not start

    should nt the 7812 be given supplu from panel with a dropper ???

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. the 555 output implements the adjustments by supplying a varying PWM, not by a varying voltage....therefore 11V will not affect the procedures....

      Delete

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Readers are advised to proceed with the construction of the presented circuits only after understanding the concepts from the core. Not adhering to this can lead to failures and frustrations.